svn commit: r44907 - head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall

Dru Lavigne dru at
Thu May 22 15:18:46 UTC 2014

Author: dru
Date: Thu May 22 15:18:45 2014
New Revision: 44907

  Finish editorial review of Post-Install and Troubleshooting sections.
  Sponsored by:	iXsystems


Modified: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall/chapter.xml
--- head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall/chapter.xml	Thu May 22 12:54:22 2014	(r44906)
+++ head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall/chapter.xml	Thu May 22 15:18:45 2014	(r44907)
@@ -2294,8 +2294,9 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
     <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-addusers">
       <title>Add Users</title>
-      <para>Adding at least one user during the installation allows
-	the system to be used without being logged in as <systemitem
+      <para>The next menu prompts to create at least one user account.
+	It is recommended to login to the system using a user account
+	rather than as <systemitem
 	  class="username">root</systemitem>.  When logged in as
 	<systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, there are
 	essentially no limits or protection on what can be done.
@@ -2314,7 +2315,10 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
-      <para>Enter the information for the user to be added.</para>
+      <para>Follow the prompts and input the requested information for
+	 the user account.  The example shown in <xref
+	    linkend="bsdinstall-add-user2"/> creates the <systemitem
+	  class="username">asample</systemitem> user account.</para>
       <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user2">
 	<title>Enter User Information</title>
@@ -2326,18 +2330,21 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
-      <itemizedlist>
-	<title>User Information</title>
+      <para>Here is a summary of the information to input:</para>
+      <itemizedlist>
 	  <para><literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will
-	    enter to log in.  Typically the first letter of their
-	    first name combined with their last name.</para>
+	    enter to log in.  A common convention is to use the first letter of the
+	    first name combined with the last name, as long as each
+	    username is unique for the system.  The username is case
+	    sensitive and should not contain any spaces.</para>
 	  <para><literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full
-	    name.</para>
+	    name.  This can contain spaces and is used as a
+	    description for the user account.</para>
@@ -2348,13 +2355,15 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
 	  <para><literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group.
-	    Typically left blank to accept the default.</para>
+	    Typically this is left blank to accept the default.</para>
 	  <para><literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into
 	      other groups?</literal> - Additional groups to which the
-	    user will be added as a member.</para>
+	    user will be added as a member.  If the user needs
+	    administrative access, type <literal>wheel</literal>
+	    here.</para>
@@ -2363,9 +2372,10 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
-	  <para><literal>Shell</literal> - The interactive shell for
-	    this user.  In the example, &man.csh.1; has been
-	    chosen.</para>
+	  <para><literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed
+	    values to set the interactive shell for
+	    the user.  Refer to <xref linkend="shells"/> for more
+	    information about shells.</para>
@@ -2381,21 +2391,24 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
 	  <para><literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal>
-	    - Typically <literal>yes</literal>.</para>
+	    - Typically <literal>yes</literal> so that the user is
+	    prompted to input their password at login.</para>
 	  <para><literal>Use an empty password?</literal> -
-	    Typically <literal>no</literal>.</para>
+	    Typically <literal>no</literal> as it is insecure to have
+	    a blank password.</para>
 	  <para><literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically
-	    <literal>no</literal>.</para>
+	    <literal>no</literal> so that the user can set their own
+	    password in the next prompt.</para>
-	  <para><literal>Enter password</literal> - The actual
+	  <para><literal>Enter password</literal> - The
 	    password for this user.  Characters typed will not show on
 	    the screen.</para>
@@ -2408,13 +2421,12 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
 	  <para><literal>Lock out the account after
 	      creation?</literal> - Typically
-	    <literal>no</literal>.</para>
+	    <literal>no</literal> so that the user can login.</para>
-      <para>After entering everything, a summary is shown, and the
-	system asks if it is correct.  If a mistake was made during
-	entry, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again.  If
+      <para>After entering everything, a summary is shown for review.
+	If a mistake was made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again.  If
 	everything is correct, enter <literal>yes</literal> to create
 	the new user.</para>
@@ -2458,8 +2470,6 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
 	configuration before completing the installation.</para>
-	<title>Final Configuration Options</title>
 	  <para><literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref
@@ -2497,7 +2507,7 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
       <para>After any final configuration is complete, select
-	<guibutton>Exit</guibutton> to leave the installation.</para>
+	<guibutton>Exit</guibutton>.</para>
       <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-modification-shell">
 	<title>Manual Configuration</title>
@@ -2514,7 +2524,7 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
 	are any additional configuration that needs to be done before
 	rebooting into the new system.  Select
 	<guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to exit to a shell
-	within the new system, or
+	within the new system or
 	<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to proceed to the last
 	step of the installation.</para>
@@ -2529,170 +2539,47 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID
       <para>If further configuration or special setup is needed,
-	selecting <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>
-	will boot the install media into Live <acronym>CD</acronym>
+	select <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>
+	to boot the install media into Live <acronym>CD</acronym>
-      <para>When the installation is complete, select
+      <para>If the installation is complete, select
 	<guibutton>[ Reboot ]</guibutton> to reboot the
 	computer and start the new &os; system.  Do not forget to
-	remove the &os; install <acronym>CD</acronym>,
-	<acronym>DVD</acronym>, or <acronym>USB</acronym> memory
-	stick, or the computer may boot from it again.</para>
-    </sect2>
-    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-freebsdboot">
-      <title>&os; Booting and Shutdown</title>
+	remove the &os; install media
+	or the computer may boot from it again.</para>
-      <sect3 xml:id="bsdinstall-freebsdboot-i386">
-	<title>&os;/&arch.i386; Booting</title>
-	<para>As &os; boots, many informational messages are
-	  displayed.  Most will scroll off the screen; this is normal.
+	<para>As &os; boots, informational messages are
+	  displayed.
 	  After the system finishes booting, a login prompt is
-	  displayed.  Messages that scrolled off the screen can be
+	  displayed.  At the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt, enter the
+	  username added during the installation.
+	  Avoid logging in as <systemitem
+	    class="username">root</systemitem>.  Refer to <xref
+	    linkend="users-superuser"/> for instructions on how to
+	  become the superuser when administrative access is
+	  needed.</para>
+	<para>The messages that appeared during boot can be
 	  reviewed by pressing <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on
-	  the <emphasis>scroll-back buffer</emphasis>.  The
+	  the scroll-back buffer.  The
 	  <keycap>PgUp</keycap>, <keycap>PgDn</keycap>, and arrow keys
-	  can be used to scroll back through the messages.  Pressing
-	  <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again unlocks the display and
-	  returns to the normal screen.</para>
-	<para>At the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt, enter the
-	  username added during the installation, <systemitem
-	    class="username">asample</systemitem> in the example.
-	  Avoid logging in as <systemitem
-	    class="username">root</systemitem> except when
-	  necessary.</para>
-	<para>The scroll-back buffer examined above is limited in
-	  size, so not all of the messages may have been visible.
-	  After logging in, most of them can be seen from the command
-	  line by typing <command>dmesg | less</command> at the
+	  can be used to scroll back through the messages.  When finished, press
+	  <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again to unlock the display and
+	  return to the console.  To review these messages once the
+	  system has been up for some time, type
+	  <command>less /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> from a command
 	  prompt.  Press <keycap>q</keycap> to return to the command
 	  line after viewing.</para>
-	<para>Typical boot messages (version information
-	  omitted):</para>
+	<para>If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref
+	    linkend="bsdinstall-config-serv"/>, the first boot may be
+	  a bit slower as the system will generate the <acronym>RSA</acronym> and
+	  <acronym>DSA</acronym> keys.  Subsequent boots will be
+	  faster.  The fingerprints of the keys will be displayed, as seen in
+	  this example:</para> 
-	<screen>Copyright (c) 1992-2011 The FreeBSD Project.
-Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
-        The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
-FreeBSD is a registered trademark of The FreeBSD Foundation.
-    root at amd64
-CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     E8400  @ 3.00GHz (3007.77-MHz K8-class CPU)
-  Origin = "GenuineIntel"  Id = 0x10676  Family = 6  Model = 17  Stepping = 6
-  Features2=0x209<SSE3,MON,SSSE3>
-  AMD Features=0x20100800<SYSCALL,NX,LM>
-  AMD Features2=0x1<LAHF>
-real memory  = 536805376 (511 MB)
-avail memory = 491819008 (469 MB)
-Event timer "LAPIC" quality 400
-ioapic0: Changing APIC ID to 1
-ioapic0 <Version 1.1> irqs 0-23 on motherboard
-kbd1 at kbdmux0
-acpi0: <VBOX VBOXXSDT> on motherboard
-acpi0: Power Button (fixed)
-acpi0: Sleep Button (fixed)
-Timecounter "ACPI-fast" frequency 3579545 Hz quality 900
-acpi_timer0: <32-bit timer at 3.579545MHz> port 0x4008-0x400b on acpi0
-cpu0: <ACPI CPU> on acpi0
-pcib0: <ACPI Host-PCI bridge> port 0xcf8-0xcff on acpi0
-pci0: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib0
-isab0: <PCI-ISA bridge> at device 1.0 on pci0
-isa0: <ISA bus> on isab0
-atapci0: <Intel PIIX4 UDMA33 controller> port 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6,0x170-0x177,0x376,0xd000-0xd00f at device 1.1 on pci0
-ata0: <ATA channel 0> on atapci0
-ata1: <ATA channel 1> on atapci0
-vgapci0: <VGA-compatible display> mem 0xe0000000-0xe0ffffff irq 18 at device 2.0 on pci0
-em0: <Intel(R) PRO/1000 Legacy Network Connection 1.0.3> port 0xd010-0xd017 mem 0xf0000000-0xf001ffff irq 19 at device 3.0 on pci0
-em0: Ethernet address: 08:00:27:9f:e0:92
-pci0: <base peripheral> at device 4.0 (no driver attached)
-pcm0: <Intel ICH (82801AA)> port 0xd100-0xd1ff,0xd200-0xd23f irq 21 at device 5.0 on pci0
-pcm0: <SigmaTel STAC9700/83/84 AC97 Codec>
-ohci0: <OHCI (generic) USB controller> mem 0xf0804000-0xf0804fff irq 22 at device 6.0 on pci0
-usbus0: <OHCI (generic) USB controller> on ohci0
-pci0: <bridge> at device 7.0 (no driver attached)
-acpi_acad0: <AC Adapter> on acpi0
-atkbdc0: <Keyboard controller (i8042)> port 0x60,0x64 irq 1 on acpi0
-atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> irq 1 on atkbdc0
-kbd0 at atkbd0
-atkbd0: [GIANT-LOCKED]
-psm0: <PS/2 Mouse> irq 12 on atkbdc0
-psm0: model IntelliMouse Explorer, device ID 4
-attimer0: <AT timer> port 0x40-0x43,0x50-0x53 on acpi0
-Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz quality 0
-Event timer "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz quality 100
-sc0: <System console> at flags 0x100 on isa0
-sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300>
-vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0
-atrtc0: <AT realtime clock> at port 0x70 irq 8 on isa0
-Event timer "RTC" frequency 32768 Hz quality 0
-ppc0: cannot reserve I/O port range
-Timecounters tick every 10.000 msec
-pcm0: measured ac97 link rate at 485193 Hz
-em0: link state changed to UP
-usbus0: 12Mbps Full Speed USB v1.0
-ugen0.1: <Apple> at usbus0
-uhub0: <Apple OHCI root HUB, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1> on usbus0
-cd0 at ata1 bus 0 scbus1 target 0 lun 0
-cd0: <VBOX CD-ROM 1.0> Removable CD-ROM SCSI-0 device
-cd0: 33.300MB/s transfers (UDMA2, ATAPI 12bytes, PIO 65534bytes)
-cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present
-ada0 at ata0 bus 0 scbus0 target 0 lun 0
-ada0: <VBOX HARDDISK 1.0> ATA-6 device
-ada0: 33.300MB/s transfers (UDMA2, PIO 65536bytes)
-ada0: 12546MB (25694208 512 byte sectors: 16H 63S/T 16383C)
-ada0: Previously was known as ad0
-Timecounter "TSC" frequency 3007772192 Hz quality 800
-Root mount waiting for: usbus0
-uhub0: 8 ports with 8 removable, self powered
-Trying to mount root from ufs:/dev/ada0p2 [rw]...
-Setting hostuuid: 1848d7bf-e6a4-4ed4-b782-bd3f1685d551.
-Setting hostid: 0xa03479b2.
-Entropy harvesting: interrupts ethernet point_to_point kickstart.
-Starting file system checks:
-/dev/ada0p2: clean, 2620402 free (714 frags, 327461 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
-Mounting local file systems:.
-vboxguest0 port 0xd020-0xd03f mem 0xf0400000-0xf07fffff,0xf0800000-0xf0803fff irq 20 at device 4.0 on pci0
-vboxguest: loaded successfully
-Setting hostname:
-Starting Network: lo0 em0.
-lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 16384
-        options=3<RXCSUM,TXCSUM>
-        inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
-        inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x3
-        inet netmask 0xff000000
-        nd6 options=21<PERFORMNUD,AUTO_LINKLOCAL>
-em0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500
-        ether 08:00:27:9f:e0:92
-        media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT <full-duplex>)
-        status: active
-Starting devd.
-Starting Network: usbus0.
-DHCPREQUEST on em0 to port 67
-bound to -- renewal in 43200 seconds.
-add net ::ffff: gateway ::1
-add net :: gateway ::1
-add net fe80::: gateway ::1
-add net ff02::: gateway ::1
-ELF ldconfig path: /lib /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/local/lib
-32-bit compatibility ldconfig path: /usr/lib32
-Creating and/or trimming log files.
-Starting syslogd.
-No core dumps found.
-Clearing /tmp (X related).
-Updating motd:.
-Configuring syscons: blanktime.
-Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
+	<screen>Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
 Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
 Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
 The key fingerprint is:
@@ -2726,52 +2613,26 @@ The key's randomart image is:
 |    . .  o .     |
 |      .o. .      |
-Starting sshd.
-Starting cron.
-Starting background file system checks in 60 seconds.
-Thu Oct  6 19:15:31 MDT 2011
-FreeBSD/amd64 ( (ttyv0)
-	<para>Generating the <acronym>RSA</acronym> and
-	  <acronym>DSA</acronym> keys may take some time on slower
-	  machines.  This happens only on the initial boot-up of a new
-	  installation, and only if <application>sshd</application> is
-	  set to start automatically.  Subsequent boots will be
-	  faster.</para>
-	<para>&os; does not install graphical environments by default,
-	  but many are available.  See <xref linkend="x11"/> for more
-	  information.</para>
-      </sect3>
-    </sect2>
+Starting sshd.</screen>
+	<para>Refer to <xref linkend="openssh"/> for more information
+	  about fingerprints and <acronym>SSH</acronym>.</para>
-    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-shutdown">
-      <title>&os; Shutdown</title>
+	<para>&os; does not install a graphical environment by default.
+	  Refer to <xref linkend="x11"/> for more
+	  information about installing and configuring a graphical
+	  window manager.</para>
       <para>Proper shutdown of a &os; computer helps protect data and
-	even hardware from damage.  Do not turn off the power before
-	the system has been properly shut down.  If the user is a
+	hardware from damage.  <emphasis>Do not turn off the power before
+	the system has been properly shut down!</emphasis>  If the user is a
 	member of the <systemitem
 	  class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> group, become the
 	superuser by typing <command>su</command> at the command line
 	and entering the <systemitem
-	  class="username">root</systemitem> password.  Otherwise, log
-	in as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> and use
-	<command>shutdown -p now</command>.  The system will close
-	down cleanly and turn itself off.</para>
-      <para>The
-	<keycombo action="simul">
-	  <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
-	  <keycap>Alt</keycap>
-	  <keycap>Del</keycap>
-	</keycombo>
-	key combination can be used to reboot the system, but is not
-	recommended during normal operation.</para>
+	  class="username">root</systemitem> password.  Then, type
+	<command>shutdown -p now</command> and the system will shut
+	down cleanly, and if the hardware supports it, turn itself off.</para>
@@ -2782,27 +2643,18 @@ login:</screen>
-    <para>The following section covers basic installation
+    <para>This section covers basic installation
       troubleshooting, such as common problems people have
-    <sect2>
-      <title>What to Do If Something Goes Wrong</title>
-      <para>Due to various limitations of the PC architecture, it is
-	impossible for probing to be 100% reliable, however, there are
-	a few things to try if it fails.</para>
       <para>Check the Hardware Notes (<link
-	document for the version of &os; to make sure your hardware is
-	supported.</para>
-      <para>If the hardware is supported and lock-ups or other
+	document for the version of &os; to make sure the hardware is
+	supported.  If the hardware is supported and lock-ups or other
 	problems occur, build a custom kernel using the instructions
 	in <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> to add support for devices
 	which are not present in the <filename>GENERIC</filename>
-	kernel.  The kernel on the boot disks is configured assuming
+	kernel.  The default kernel assumes
 	that most hardware devices are in their factory default
 	configuration in terms of <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s,
 	<acronym>I/O</acronym> addresses, and <acronym>DMA</acronym>
@@ -2810,11 +2662,6 @@ login:</screen>
 	kernel configuration file can tell &os; where to find
-      <para>It is also possible that a probe for a device not present
-	will cause a later probe for another device that is present to
-	fail.  In that case, the probes for the conflicting driver(s)
-	should be disabled.</para>
 	<para>Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated
 	  by updating the firmware on various hardware components,
@@ -2830,21 +2677,11 @@ login:</screen>
 	  <acronym>BIOS</acronym> incomplete and the computer
-    </sect2>
-    <sect2>
-      <title>Troubleshooting Questions and Answers</title>
-      <qandaset>
-	<qandaentry>
-	  <question>
-	    <para>My system hangs while probing hardware during boot,
-	      or it behaves strangely during install.</para>
-	  </question>
-	  <answer>
-	    <para>&os; makes extensive use of the system
-	      <acronym>ACPI</acronym> service on the i386, amd64, and
+	    <para>If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot,
+	      or it behaves strangely during install,
+	      <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may be the culprit.  &os; makes extensive use of the system
+	      <acronym>ACPI</acronym> service on the &arch.i386;, &arch.amd64;, and
 	      ia64 platforms to aid in system configuration if it is
 	      detected during boot.  Unfortunately, some bugs still
 	      exist in both the <acronym>ACPI</acronym> driver and
@@ -2861,10 +2698,6 @@ login:</screen>
 	      <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.  More
 	      information about the boot loader can be found in <xref
-	  </answer>
-	</qandaentry>
-      </qandaset>
-    </sect2>
   <sect1 xml:id="using-live-cd">

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