some confusion in socket(2)

Lowell Gilbert freebsd-questions-local at
Tue Mar 22 17:37:49 UTC 2016

Teng Zhang via freebsd-questions <freebsd-questions at> writes:

> hello, in socket(2), the following sentence:         SOCK_RAW sockets
> provide access to internal network protocols and interfaces.My
> confusion is what are included in the range of "internal network
> protocols and interfaces". Could you please tell me the answer or
> where i can find relevant information.

Raw sockets are nothing more than IP sockets without a transport
protocol associated. Routing daemons and ping, for example, use raw
sockets to directly control packet headers.

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