I'd like some help

Christian Zachariasen chrizach at gmail.com
Mon Mar 24 10:03:27 PDT 2008

On Windows, I can really recommend the freeware burner program CDBurnerXP:


Christian Zachariasen

On Mon, Mar 24, 2008 at 5:05 PM, Jerry McAllister <jerrymc at msu.edu> wrote:

> On Sat, Mar 22, 2008 at 02:58:24PM -0700, Matthew Woodson wrote:
> > I've been learning about a bunch of the BSD OSes, and i want to try Free
> > BSD, but i can't figure out how to download it and the instructions
> don't
> > make sense. I am running Windows XP OS- can you tell me how to download
> > Free BSD with it?
> Well, you generally want an ftp client.  Use it to ftp to:
>      ftp.freebsd.org
> Use 'anonymous' for login id  and your email address for password.
> >From there cd to pub/FreeBSD/releases       (NOTE that case is
> significant)
> At this point, you need to know the type of machine.  It is most
> likely i386  or amd64.   amd64 is for the AMD64 processor.  i386 is for
> all of the regular INTEL type processors that regular PCs use and your
> most likely choice.
> So, cd to i386    and then    ISO-IMAGES
> Then you have to select the version.
> I would suggest starting with 7.0
> cd cd to  7.0
> So that ends you up in:
>  pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/7.0
> Then download the necessary ISOs.
> If you have a reasonable internet connection, you can install over
> the net.   That is really the best if you can do it.
> In that case, you only need the file  7.0-RELEASE-i386-disc1.ISO
> If you hav a slow or unreliable network connection, then you may
> also need disc2 and even disc3.   They have the ports' source code
> on them.
> Presuming disc1 is good enough,
> burn the file to a cd.   Note that the file is already an ISO and
> doesn't need to be converted.   It needs to be burned as a raw file
> to the CD.   Some cd burner utilities make this a bit confusing.
> Each is a little different.
> You now need to decide how to divide the hard disk and if you will be
> putting only FreeBSD on the harddisk or sharing one with some other
> OS such as something from Microsloth (called dual booting).
> In any case, you have to have a slice dedicated to FreeBSD.
> Note that FreeBSD UNIX uses the term slice but Microsloth uses the
> term 'primary partition' to refer to a slice.   The UNIX slice and
> the MS primary partition are essentially the same and are compatible.
> In BSD, a slice is further divided in to 'partitions'.  Microsloth uses
> 'extended partitions'.  But those MS extended partitions are completely
> different and incompatible with UNIX partitions.
> If you are sharing a disk, you will need to use some utility to
> shrink the existing disk allocation to make room for FreeBSD.
> Only 4 slices/primary partitions (names 1..4) are allowed on a disk in
> current systems.   Typically a major vendor puts some proprietary
> diagnostic
> and hardware utilities in the first [small] slice and marks it hidden.
> Hidden is only meaningful to Microsloth systems.  It remains visible to
> Then they put the MS OS (XP or whatever) on slice 2 and make that slice
> contain all the rest of the disk, leaving slice 3 and slice 4 empty
> and unused.    So, to fit FreeBSD on the disk, it becomes necessary to
> shrink that slice 2 to free up some space to allocate to another slice -
> most likely slice-3.
> I have used a commercial utility called Partition Magic successfully
> in the past to manipulate the slices and make room.   That was with
> a version 7.0 of PM which was put out by a company called Power Quest.
> But, it got sold and the new owner put a version 8.0 which has not
> been as successful as far as I can see.  I tried to use it to slice a
> USB disk and it would not talk to it, even though its promotional
> literature made a special point of advertising it would.  So, I returned
> it for a refund.
> In consequence I get a utility called Gparted, made the boot floppy and
> was quite successful with using it to manipulate the disk.  Just do a
> little search with google and find it and download it.  It works fine.
> There are some other freeware utilities out there, but most will not
> work with the NTFS type Microsloth filesystem which is common nowdays.
> So, check on that.   Gparted seems to handle it OK.
> Anyway, lets say you carve out a nice 40 GB of disk for FreeBSD and that
> is in slice 3 - a common circumstance.    If you have a whole disk to
> decicate to FreeBSD the rest of this applies.  You just don't need to
> go through the gyrations to make room on a shared disk and the disk name
> is slightly different - probably ad1 instead of ad0.
> Once you have space on the disk to fit FreeBSD, then boot up the
> FreeBSD install CD.  Choose the appropriate location to do the install.
> That will probably be  ad0s1  if you are making FreeBSD the only OS on the
> machine or  ad0s3  of a shared drive or  ad1s1  of a dedicated second
> drive.
> Choose that and then divide the slice as needed/desired.   This becomes
> almost a religious issue and there are many reasons for doing it many
> different ways.   The main ideas are:   use a single partition, plus swap,
> or choose the defauly divisions, or a newer division scheme that takes
> in to consideration that sizes have grown in recent years.
> Note, the rule of thumb for swap is 2.2 X the RAM size, but some people
>    use more or less of swap.  There are reasons for each choice.
> Single plus swap is two partitions.
> One partition is root    (/)    on partition a   All but swap
> the other is swap.    no mount  on partitino b   1 GB or more
> Default division has a small root, swap of 2.2 RAM, small /tmp
> My updated default is:
>  a  mounted on      /       256 MB
>  b  no mount point          2.2 GB    (for 1 GB memory)
>  c  describes slice - do not use
>  d  mounted on      /tmp    768 MB
>  e  mounted on      /usr      2 GB     (a lot more if I use a lot of
> ports)
>  f  mounted on      /var      4 GB     (more if I use a database)
>  g  mounted on      /home     remainder of slice
> Once I get these established and things loaded/installed, I often
> move /usr/ports  and /usr/src  in to /home and make symlinks
> and /var/spoot and var/log  also in to /home with symlinks.   By
> doing that they have more room to grow without worrying about some
> rogue process killing the system.
> Go on and choose things to install.   Mostly you want the ports
> system and X-org.
> After you get this installed and some configuration done - follow the
> handbook on these -  do a csup and rebuild things to make sure you
> have all the latest security updates and ports fixes and improvements.
> Then go through ports and install things you want.   Probably these
> will include OpenOffice, Firefox and associates, and maybe MySQL
> and PHP and Perl.    I have a few other standard ones including a
> couple of games and drawing programs and system management aids.
> If you want to use this machine for Email, it already has sendmail
> which you can just start using.   It will be ready to turn on.
> Learn to use vi.   It is really easy once you get used to it (famous
> last words) and most importantly, it available on all UNIX systems,
> regardless of which other editors might be available.   I have a tutorial
> about how to learn a simple vi on my website.   I don't remember the
> exact address and that system is currently shut down - which it is now
> and then for some special work - but start with:
>     http://z2.cl.msu.edu/~jerrymc/ <http://z2.cl.msu.edu/%7Ejerrymc/> and
> look around.  It is easy to fine.
> Have fun.  After screwing stuff sufficiently and in the course of
> things, accidently learning something, then start over from scratch
> and set it up more to your liking.
> ////jerry
> >
> >
>                    -Thanks, Matthew
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