Proper FreeBSD installation practices
kdk at daleco.biz
Wed Feb 1 11:54:56 PST 2006
Alvaro J. Gurdián wrote:
> I looked at the sysinstall and pkg_add man files and noticed
> that at least in pkg_add it was looking for updates at
> I made my way over to that address and noticed indeed bind9-9.3.1
> was the newest available, then after some browsing I found
> where the was a bind9-9.3.2.
> So assumed that both pkg_add and sysinstall were looking up
> the same location.
> I tried to tell sysinstall to search a different location:
> stable/dns/ mediaSetFTP configPackages
> But it just ignored my input and used the same ftp address as it had
> However with pkg_add I had a little further, after setting the
> environment variable PACKAGEROOT to
> ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable/dns/ I
> was able to type, pkg_add -r bind9-9.3.2, and successfully install.
> Or at least so I thought.
> To make sure, I went to /var/db/pkg and saw bind9-9.3.2 listed.
> Unfortunately when I tried named -v, it replied: version
> 9.3.1........what? How?
> By now now I am terrible confused.
Keep in mind that FreeBSD has a "base system" which includes BIND. It is
likely that your search path has "/usr/sbin" listed prior to
this is the default. Here is proof from my machine, your is probably
 Wed 01.Feb.2006 13:38:41
[kadmin at archangel][~]
# echo $PATH
So, when you issue `named -v`, you are really saying `/usr/sbin/named
the "base system" named is answering correctly. Try
and see if you get the response you expect.
> What is the difference between
> I thought release was the newest version of stable, and therefore
> these two directories should point to the same info. Or at least,
> will they merge some time in the future?
RELEASE is the last "officially RELEASED version" of -STABLE, but
-STABLE continues in development, therefore, at any given time
except the exact moment that a RELEASE is tagged, -STABLE is
newer. -STABLE and RELEASE will never again "merge"; if you will,
RELEASE "emerged" from -STABLE as of the date of the RELEASE
and is only supported with security fixes and major bug fixes (if any)
for a specified period of time. -STABLE will "continue on" until such
time as FreeBSD 7 becomes STABLE ...
... have I made it difficult enough yet??
As far as ports/packages go, the "STABLE" ports/packages would
be newer than those in 6.0-RELEASE, because 6.0-RELEASE was
tagged and the packages built in November.
> Also, I believe I actually installed bind9-9.3.2, if so where is it?
> If not, how can I?
As I said above, it's under /usr/local/sbin. You can set
named_program = "/usr/local/sbin/named"
in /etc/rc.conf, and the system should use the port instead
of the base system named. See /etc/defaults/rc.conf for more
> There must be some logical aspect of FreeBSD that I do not
> understand, because installing a package or a port has never been so
Well, the trick is that you installed a port which is a duplicate of
base system functionality, and haven't yet told FreeBSD that you
prefer something other than the base system's named(8).
> Having to set environment variables every time I want to get
> the newest version of a program should not be the standard
> way to operate, I am sure it isn't.
You are quite right. Keeping the ports tree (/usr/ports) up to
date using cvsup is something of a "standard way to operate".
This, in conjuction with portupgrade or portmanager, helps
keep packages/ports "current". See handbook chapter 20
for other tips on "the Cutting Edge."
Kevin D. Kinsey
Tart words make no friends; a spoonful of honey
will catch more flies than a gallon of vinegar.
-- Ben Franklin
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