stapleton.41 at gmail.com
Mon Apr 10 14:38:31 UTC 2006
rehash? Cool, thanks, that'll be useful if I have to reinstall in the
future. At some point does this automatically get run after ports are
built? I knotice things get rehashed automatically after my first few
port builds, it's only the first few that cause the problem. (I
usually do bash, links/lynx, porgupgrade, and a couple others, in
semi-random order at first).
On 4/10/06, Andy Greenwood <greenwood.andy at gmail.com> wrote:
> On 4/10/06, Jim Stapleton <stapleton.41 at gmail.com> wrote:
> > I appologize is this stuff is too basic for you, but it sounds as if
> > you need a crash course in Unix basics, not just FreeBSD. This will
> > tell you how to do the basics. My suggestion is to go to the library
> > and pick up some books on Unix use/administration and/or FreeBSD.
> > O'Reily makes some nice stuff.
> > Notation: Any time you see something inside square brackets, it's
> > optional. i.e. you might see:
> > command [optional stuff]
> > Next, when I put somthing between underscore, that means it's
> > _italicised_, which means you have to replace what I wrote, with what
> > the word describes.
> > First off, some basic Unix comands
> > $ cd _directory_
> > change your current directory to a new direcotry. If _directory_
> > starts with a "/", then the new directory will be relative to the root
> > of the file systme, otherwise it will be relative to your current
> > directory
> > $ ls [_directory_]
> > lists the contents of the current directory, unless _directory_ is
> > specified, and then it lists the contents of _directory_
> > $ pwd
> > Display "present working directory", or the directory you are in.
> > $ man _command_
> > a rough outline of comman info, not the easiest to read initially,
> > but it's a good quick reference. It's the manual.
> > $ info _command_
> > another form of documentation, like man.
> > $ which _command_
> > this tells you if a command is installed, and where it is located.
> > $ less _file_
> > This outputs a file to the screen, you can navigate the file using
> > the arrow keys.
> > $ ee _file_
> > $ emacs _file_
> > $ xemacs _file
> > $ vi _file_
> > $ vim _file_
> > These are three basic (and not so basic) text editors you can find
> > on FreeBSD, ee and vi/vim are usually installed, you may have to
> > install emacs on your own. Each has several advantages and drawbacks,
> > and this topic is not the place to ressurect *that* holy war.
> > Some important directories
> > /
> > The base directory off which everything can be found.
> > /bin/
> > /usr/bin/
> > /usr/local/bin/
> > The location of most executable files.
> > /sbin/
> > /usr/sbin/
> > /usr/local/sbin/
> > various server/administrative executable files are located in these
> > directories
> > /dev/
> > This directory gives file-like access to hardware devices, and is
> > one of those things you'll need to learn over time.
> > /etc/
> > /usr/local/etc/
> > All of the text files that configure the OS are here
> > /home/
> > The directory containing each users information, with the user name
> > as the sub directory with the information for each individual user.
> > /usr/
> > This directory contains various shared pieces of data used
> > throughout the operating system. It's a bit more complex than the
> > rest, so I won't go into a lot of detail.
> > /usr/local
> > This is like /usr/, and "/" except it has the "test" or "add-on" files
> > now to try getting you to a point where you can reference the
> > handbook, which is an excellent source of documentation.
> > First, see which web browser you have installed for text viewing:
> > $ which links
> > $ which lynx
> > if either of these returns something (such as /usr/local/bin/links ),
> > you can skip to the "== read the handbook ==" section, otherwise
> > continuw with the "== ports crash course ==" section.
> > == ports crash course ==
> > first you want to get to the directory of a web browser, I'm slightly
> > more comfortable with lynx than links, so I'll show you how to get
> > ther:
> > change your directory to the lynx port: all ports are under
> > /usr/ports, then there are several sub-directories in there which hold
> > various programs, related to the group name. Example: "www" has web
> > related programs.
> > $ cd /usr/ports/www/lynx/
> > now you want to install your web browser, running "make install" in a
> > program directory within ports will download, install and compile the
> > program (provided there are no errors).
> > $ make install
> > now clean up the work since you don't need it anymore
> > $ make clean
> > verify you have lynx installed, I noticed sometiems in earlier
> > installs, I had to log out and log back in before this would work (or
> > start a new shell, log out and back in will be easier for a newbie):
> Your shell most likely is keeping a hash of what commands it knows about.
> When you install a new one, the hash isn't updated automaticall, so if you
> log out and back in, it will get updated and you'll see the new command. The
> quickest way to update this is to execute
> $ rehash
> $ which lynx
> == read the handbook ==
> Open the handbook in your web browser, I believe this is the correct
> directory to the handbook, but I'm not currently on a BSD machine, so
> I can't verify easily. Replace "en" with the appropriate directory for
> your language if you aren't using english:
> $ lynx /usr/doc/en/books/handbook/index.html.
> Now, you can navigate with the page-up and page-down keys, and use the
> arrow keys to select links. Enter will follow the selected link, and
> backspace will bring you to a page that has a bunch of links that list
> recently viewed pages.
> You'll want to read about setting up X windows, as well as the use of
> ports and cvsup. The handbook describes these well, and is even more
> user friendly than the Hitchiker's Guide to the Galaxy, for all the
> lack of a "Don't Panic" moniker on the front.
> If you are like most Windows converts, you'll want to setup xorg,
> firefox, and either KDE or Gnome quickly. If you are more into diving
> in, you might like to install/try xfce (mentioned by another user),
> ion, and/or window maker instead. These can be found uner "x11/" or
> "x11-wm". Orif you are really bold, you can stick with "twm".
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