svn commit: r52704 - head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-servers

Benedict Reuschling bcr at
Thu Dec 20 21:54:06 UTC 2018

Author: bcr
Date: Thu Dec 20 21:54:05 2018
New Revision: 52704

  Rewrite the LDAP server section of the handbook.
  The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) section of the handbook
  contains several errors (typos, wrong steps) and was in need of updates
  to reflect current versions of the software. Rocky Hotas provided a patch
  for review that fixes many of those bugs and extends the instructions in
  the first part. The second part received a complete rewrite, providing
  working example configuration files and steps to get the server running.
  I made only a few cleanups and corrections to the patch to fit our
  documentation guidelines. Most of the work was done by the submitter, big
  thanks for his work and patience!
  PR:		219142
  Submitted by:	rockyhotas at
  Reviewed by:	remko, wollman, wblock, myself, others
  Approved by:	bcr
  Differential Revision:


Modified: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-servers/chapter.xml
--- head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-servers/chapter.xml	Thu Dec 20 16:21:52 2018	(r52703)
+++ head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-servers/chapter.xml	Thu Dec 20 21:54:05 2018	(r52704)
@@ -1000,7 +1000,7 @@ Exports list on foobar:
       <para>The &man.autofs.5; map format is the same as in other
 	operating systems.  Information about this format from other
-	 sources can be useful, like the <link
+	sources can be useful, like the <link
 	  OS X document</link>.</para>
@@ -2248,9 +2248,18 @@ TWO       (,hotel,test-domain)
-	  <contrib>Written by </contrib>
+	  <contrib>Originally contributed by </contrib>
+      <authorgroup>
+       <author>
+         <personname>
+           <firstname>Rocky</firstname>
+           <surname>Hotas</surname>
+         </personname>
+         <contrib>Updates by </contrib>
+       </author>
+     </authorgroup>
@@ -2340,32 +2349,35 @@ result: 0 Success
       <indexterm><primary>LDAP Server</primary></indexterm>
       <para>&os; does not provide a built-in <acronym>LDAP</acronym>
-	server.  Begin the configuration by installing the <package
-	  role="port">net/openldap24-server</package> package or port.
-	Since the port has many configurable options, it is
-	recommended that the default options are reviewed to see if
-	the package is sufficient, and to instead compile the port if
-	any options should be changed.  In most cases, the defaults
-	are fine.  However, if SQL support is needed, this option must
-	be enabled and the port compiled using the instructions in
-	<xref linkend="ports-using"/>.</para>
+	server.  Begin the configuration by installing <package
+	  role="port">net/openldap-server</package> package or
+	port:</para>
-      <para>Next, create the directories to hold the data and to store
-	the certificates:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install openldap-server</userinput></screen>
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /var/db/openldap-data</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /usr/local/etc/openldap/private</userinput></screen>
+      <para>There is a large set of default options enabled in the
+	<link xlink:href="&url.articles.linux-users;/software.html">
+	  package</link>.  Review them by running
+	<command>pkg info openldap-server</command>.  If they are not
+	sufficient (for example if SQL support is needed), please
+	consider recompiling the port using the appropriate <link
+	  xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/ports-using.html">framework</link>.</para>
-      <para>Copy over the database configuration file:</para>
+      <para>The installation creates the directory
+	<filename>/var/db/openldap-data</filename> to hold the data.
+	The directory to store the certificates must be
+	created:</para>
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cp /usr/local/etc/openldap/DB_CONFIG.example /var/db/openldap-data/DB_CONFIG</userinput></screen>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /usr/local/etc/openldap/private</userinput></screen>
-      <para>The next phase is to configure the certificate authority.
+      <para>The next phase is to configure the Certificate Authority.
 	The following commands must be executed from
 	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/private</filename>.  This is
 	important as the file permissions need to be restrictive and
-	users should not have access to these files.  To create the
-	certificate authority, start with this command and follow the
+	users should not have access to these files.  More detailed
+	information about certificates and their parameters can be
+	found in <xref linkend="openssl"/>.  To create the
+	Certificate Authority, start with this command and follow the
       <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>openssl req -days <replaceable>365</replaceable> -nodes -new -x509 -keyout ca.key -out ../ca.crt</userinput></screen>
@@ -2375,7 +2387,7 @@ result: 0 Success
 	<literal>Common Name</literal>.  This entry must be
 	<emphasis>different</emphasis> than the system hostname.  If
 	this will be a self signed certificate, prefix the hostname
-	with <literal>CA</literal> for certificate authority.</para>
+	with <literal>CA</literal> for Certificate Authority.</para>
       <para>The next task is to create a certificate signing request
 	and a private key.  Input this command and follow the
@@ -2385,7 +2397,9 @@ result: 0 Success
       <para>During the certificate generation process, be sure to
 	correctly set the <literal>Common Name</literal> attribute.
-	Once complete, sign the key:</para>
+	The Certificate Signing Request must be signed with the
+	Certificate Authority in order to be used as a valid
+	certificate:</para>
       <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>openssl x509 -req -days <replaceable>365</replaceable> -in server.csr -out ../server.crt -CA ../ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial</userinput></screen>
@@ -2398,172 +2412,351 @@ result: 0 Success
       <para>Remember to use the same <literal>Common Name</literal>
 	attribute when prompted.  When finished, ensure that a total
 	of eight (8) new files have been generated through the
-	proceeding commands.  If so, the next step is to edit
-	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</filename> and
-	add the following options:</para>
+	proceeding commands.</para>
-      <programlisting>TLSCipherSuite HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv3
-TLSCertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/server.crt
-TLSCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/private/server.key
-TLSCACertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt</programlisting>
+      <para>The daemon running the OpenLDAP server is
+	<filename>slapd</filename>.  Its configuration is performed
+	through <filename>slapd.ldif</filename>: the old
+	<filename>slapd.conf</filename> has been deprecated by
+	OpenLDAP.</para>
-      <para>Then, edit
-	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</filename> and add
-	the following lines:</para>
+      <para><link
+	  xlink:href="">Configuration
+	  examples</link> for <filename>slapd.ldif</filename> are
+	available and can also be found in
+	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.ldif.sample</filename>.
+	Options are documented in slapd-config(5).  Each section
+	of <filename>slapd.ldif</filename>, like all the other LDAP
+	attribute sets, is uniquely identified through a DN.  Be sure
+	that no blank lines are left between the
+	<literal>dn:</literal> statement and the desired end of the
+	section.  In the following example, TLS will be used to
+	implement a secure channel.  The first section represents the
+	global configuration:</para>
-      <programlisting>TLS_CACERT /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
+      <programlisting>#
+# See slapd-config(5) for details on configuration options.
+# This file should NOT be world readable.
+dn: cn=config
+objectClass: olcGlobal
+cn: config
+# Define global ACLs to disable default read access.
+olcArgsFile: /var/run/openldap/slapd.args
+olcPidFile: /var/run/openldap/
+olcTLSCertificateFile: /usr/local/etc/openldap/server.crt
+olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /usr/local/etc/openldap/private/server.key
+olcTLSCACertificateFile: /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
+#olcTLSCipherSuite: HIGH
+olcTLSProtocolMin: 3.1
+olcTLSVerifyClient: never</programlisting>
-      <para>While editing this file, uncomment the following entries
-	and set them to the desired values: <option>BASE</option>,
-	<option>URI</option>, <option>SIZELIMIT</option> and
-	<option>TIMELIMIT</option>.  Set the <option>URI</option> to
-	contain <option>ldap://</option> and
-	<option>ldaps://</option>.  Then, add two entries pointing to
-	the certificate authority.  When finished, the entries should
-	look similar to the following:</para>
+      <para>The Certificate Authority, server certificate and server
+	private key files must be specified here.  It is recommended
+	to let the clients choose the security cipher and omit option
+	<literal>olcTLSCipherSuite</literal> (incompatible with TLS
+	clients other than <filename>openssl</filename>).  Option
+	<literal>olcTLSProtocolMin</literal> lets the server require a
+	minimum security level: it is recommended.  While
+	verification is mandatory for the server, it is not for the
+	client: <literal>olcTLSVerifyClient: never</literal>.</para>
-      <programlisting>BASE    dc=example,dc=com
-URI     ldap:// ldaps://
+      <para>The second section is about the backend modules and can be
+	configured as follows:</para>
-SIZELIMIT       12
-TIMELIMIT       15
+      <programlisting>#
+# Load dynamic backend modules:
+dn: cn=module,cn=config
+objectClass: olcModuleList
+cn: module
+olcModulepath:	/usr/local/libexec/openldap
-TLS_CACERT /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
+      <para>The third section is devoted to load the needed
+	<literal>ldif</literal> schemas to be used by the databases:
+	they are essential.</para>
-      <para>The default password for the server should then be
-	changed:</para>
+      <programlisting>dn: cn=schema,cn=config
+objectClass: olcSchemaConfig
+cn: schema
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>slappasswd -h "{SHA}" >> /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</userinput></screen>
+include: file:///usr/local/etc/openldap/schema/core.ldif
+include: file:///usr/local/etc/openldap/schema/cosine.ldif
+include: file:///usr/local/etc/openldap/schema/inetorgperson.ldif
+include: file:///usr/local/etc/openldap/schema/nis.ldif</programlisting>
-      <para>This command will prompt for the password and, if the
-	process does not fail, a password hash will be added to the
-	end of <filename>slapd.conf</filename>.  Several hashing
-	formats are supported.  Refer to the manual page for
-	<command>slappasswd</command> for more information.</para>
+      <para>Next, the frontend configuration section:</para>
-      <para>Next, edit
-	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</filename> and
-	add the following lines:</para>
+      <programlisting># Frontend settings
+dn: olcDatabase={-1}frontend,cn=config
+objectClass: olcDatabaseConfig
+objectClass: olcFrontendConfig
+olcDatabase: {-1}frontend
+olcAccess: to * by * read
+# Sample global access control policy:
+#	Root DSE: allow anyone to read it
+#	Subschema (sub)entry DSE: allow anyone to read it
+#	Other DSEs:
+#		Allow self write access
+#		Allow authenticated users read access
+#		Allow anonymous users to authenticate
+#olcAccess: to dn.base="" by * read
+#olcAccess: to dn.base="cn=Subschema" by * read
+#olcAccess: to *
+#	by self write
+#	by users read
+#	by anonymous auth
+# if no access controls are present, the default policy
+# allows anyone and everyone to read anything but restricts
+# updates to rootdn.  (e.g., "access to * by * read")
+# rootdn can always read and write EVERYTHING!
+olcPasswordHash: {SSHA}
+# {SSHA} is already the default for olcPasswordHash</programlisting>
-      <programlisting>password-hash {sha}
-allow bind_v2</programlisting>
+      <para>Another section is devoted to the <emphasis>configuration
+	  backend</emphasis>, the only way to later access the
+	OpenLDAP server configuration is as a global
+	super-user.</para>
-      <para>The <option>suffix</option> in this file must be updated
-	to match the <option>BASE</option> used in
-	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</filename> and
-	<option>rootdn</option> should also be set.  A recommended
-	value for <option>rootdn</option> is something like
-	<option>cn=Manager</option>.  Before saving this file, place
-	the <option>rootpw</option> in front of the password output
-	from <command>slappasswd</command> and delete the old
-	<option>rootpw</option>.  The end result should
-	look similar to this:</para>
+      <programlisting>dn: olcDatabase={0}config,cn=config
+objectClass: olcDatabaseConfig
+olcDatabase: {0}config
+olcAccess: to * by * none
+olcRootPW: {SSHA}iae+lrQZILpiUdf16Z9KmDmSwT77Dj4U</programlisting>
-      <programlisting>TLSCipherSuite HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv3
-TLSCertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/server.crt
-TLSCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/private/server.key
-TLSCACertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
-rootpw  {SHA}W6ph5Mm5Pz8GgiULbPgzG37mj9g=</programlisting>
+      <para>The default administrator username is
+	<literal>cn=config</literal>.  Type
+	<filename>slappasswd</filename> in a shell, choose a password
+	and use its hash in <literal>olcRootPW</literal>.  If this
+	option is not specified now, before
+	<filename>slapd.ldif</filename> is imported, no one will be
+	later able to modify the
+	<emphasis>global configuration</emphasis> section.</para>
-      <para>Finally, enable the <application>OpenLDAP</application>
-	service in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and set the
-	<acronym>URI</acronym>:</para>
+      <para>The last section is about the database backend:</para>
-      <programlisting>slapd_enable="YES"
-slapd_flags="-4 -h ldaps:///"</programlisting>
+      <programlisting>#######################################################################
+# LMDB database definitions
+dn: olcDatabase=mdb,cn=config
+objectClass: olcDatabaseConfig
+objectClass: olcMdbConfig
+olcDatabase: mdb
+olcDbMaxSize: 1073741824
+olcSuffix: dc=domain,dc=example
+olcRootDN: cn=mdbadmin,dc=domain,dc=example
+# Cleartext passwords, especially for the rootdn, should
+# be avoided.  See slappasswd(8) and slapd-config(5) for details.
+# Use of strong authentication encouraged.
+olcRootPW: {SSHA}X2wHvIWDk6G76CQyCMS1vDCvtICWgn0+
+# The database directory MUST exist prior to running slapd AND
+# should only be accessible by the slapd and slap tools.
+# Mode 700 recommended.
+olcDbDirectory:	/var/db/openldap-data
+# Indices to maintain
+olcDbIndex: objectClass eq</programlisting>
-      <para>At this point the server can be started and tested:</para>
+      <para>This database hosts the <emphasis>actual
+	  contents</emphasis> of the <acronym>LDAP</acronym>
+	directory.  Types other than <literal>mdb</literal> are
+	available.  Its super-user, not to be confused with the global
+	one, is configured here: a (possibly custom) username in
+	<literal>olcRootDN</literal> and the password hash in
+	<literal>olcRootPW</literal>; <filename>slappasswd</filename>
+	can be used as before.</para>
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>service slapd start</userinput></screen>
+      <para>This <link
+	  xlink:href=";a=tree;f=tests/data/regressions/its8444;h=8a5e808e63b0de3d2bdaf2cf34fecca8577ca7fd;hb=HEAD">repository</link>
+	contains four examples of <filename>slapd.ldif</filename>.  To
+	convert an existing <filename>slapd.conf</filename> into
+	<filename>slapd.ldif</filename>, refer to <link
+	  xlink:href="">this
+	  page</link> (please note that this may introduce some
+	unuseful options).</para>
-      <para>If everything is configured correctly, a search of the
-	directory should show a successful connection with a single
-	response as in this example:</para>
+      <para>When the configuration is completed,
+	<filename>slapd.ldif</filename> must be placed in an empty
+	directory.  It is recommended to create it as:</para>
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ldapsearch -Z</userinput>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.d/</userinput></screen>
+      <para>Import the configuration database:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/local/sbin/slapadd -n0 -F /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.d/ -l /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.ldif</userinput></screen>
+      <para>Start the <filename>slapd</filename> daemon:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/local/libexec/slapd -F /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.d/</userinput></screen>
+      <para>Option <literal>-d</literal> can be used for debugging,
+	as specified in slapd(8).  To verify that the server is
+	running and working:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ldapsearch -x -b '' -s base '(objectclass=*)' namingContexts</userinput>
 # extended LDIF
 # LDAPv3
-# base <dc=example,dc=com> (default) with scope subtree
+# base <> with scope baseObject
 # filter: (objectclass=*)
-# requesting: ALL
+# requesting: namingContexts
+namingContexts: dc=domain,dc=example
 # search result
-search: 3
-result: 32 No such object
+search: 2
+result: 0 Success
-# numResponses: 1</screen>
+# numResponses: 2
+# numEntries: 1</screen>
-      <note>
-	<para>If the command fails and the configuration looks
-	  correct, stop the <command>slapd</command> service and
-	  restart it with debugging options:</para>
+      <para>The server must still be trusted.  If that has never been
+	done before, follow these instructions.  Install the OpenSSL
+	package or port:</para>
-	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>service slapd stop</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/local/libexec/slapd -d -1</userinput></screen>
-      </note>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install openssl</userinput></screen>
-      <para>Once the service is responding, the directory can be
-	populated using <command>ldapadd</command>.  In this example,
-	a file containing this list of users is first created.  Each
-	user should use the following format:</para>
+      <para>From the directory where <filename>ca.crt</filename> is
+	stored (in this example,
+	<filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap</filename>), run:</para>
-      <programlisting>dn: dc=<replaceable>example</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>com</replaceable>
-objectclass: dcObject
-objectclass: organization
-o: <replaceable>Example</replaceable>
-dc: <replaceable>Example</replaceable>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>c_rehash .</userinput></screen>
-dn: cn=<replaceable>Manager</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>example</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>com</replaceable>
-objectclass: organizationalRole
-cn: <replaceable>Manager</replaceable></programlisting>
+      <para>Both the CA and the server certificate are now correctly
+	recognized in their respective roles.  To verify this, run
+	this command from the <filename>server.crt</filename>
+	directory:</para>
-      <para>To import this file, specify the file name.  The following
-	command will prompt for the password specified earlier and the
-	output should look something like this:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>openssl verify -verbose -CApath . server.crt</userinput></screen>
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ldapadd -Z -D "cn=<replaceable>Manager</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>example</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>com</replaceable>" -W -f <replaceable>import.ldif</replaceable></userinput>
-Enter LDAP Password:
-adding new entry "dc=example,dc=com"
+      <para>If <filename>slapd</filename> was running, restart it.  As
+	stated in <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d/slapd</filename>, to
+	properly run <filename>slapd</filename> at boot the
+	following lines must be added to
+	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
-adding new entry "cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com"</screen>
+      <programlisting>lapd_enable="YES"
+slapd_flags='-h "ldapi://%2fvar%2frun%2fopenldap%2fldapi/
-      <para>Verify the data was added by issuing a search on the
-	server using <command>ldapsearch</command>:</para>
+      <para><filename>slapd</filename> does not provide debugging at
+	boot.  Check <filename>/var/log/debug.log</filename>,
+	<filename>dmesg -a</filename> and
+	<filename>/var/log/messages</filename> for this
+	purpose.</para>
-      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>ldapsearch -Z</userinput>
-# extended LDIF
-# LDAPv3
-# base <dc=example,dc=com> (default) with scope subtree
-# filter: (objectclass=*)
-# requesting: ALL
+      <para>The following example adds the group
+	<literal>team</literal> and the user <literal>john</literal>
+	to the <systemitem
+	  class="systemname">domain.example</systemitem>
+	<acronym>LDAP</acronym> database, which is still empty.
+	First, create the file
+	<filename>domain.ldif</filename>:</para>
-dn: dc=example,dc=com
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cat domain.ldif</userinput>
+dn: dc=domain,dc=example
 objectClass: dcObject
 objectClass: organization
-o: Example
-dc: Example
+o: domain.example
+dc: domain
-# Manager,
-dn: cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com
-objectClass: organizationalRole
-cn: Manager
+dn: ou=groups,dc=domain,dc=example
+objectClass: top
+objectClass: organizationalunit
+ou: groups
-# search result
-search: 3
-result: 0 Success
+dn: ou=users,dc=domain,dc=example
+objectClass: top
+objectClass: organizationalunit
+ou: users
-# numResponses: 3
-# numEntries: 2</screen>
+dn: cn=team,ou=groups,dc=domain,dc=example
+objectClass: top
+objectClass: posixGroup
+cn: team
+gidNumber: 10001
-      <para>At this point, the server should be configured and
-	functioning properly.</para>
+dn: uid=john,ou=users,dc=domain,dc=example
+objectClass: top
+objectClass: account
+objectClass: posixAccount
+objectClass: shadowAccount
+cn: John McUser
+uid: john
+uidNumber: 10001
+gidNumber: 10001
+homeDirectory: /home/john/
+loginShell: /usr/bin/bash
+userPassword: secret</screen>
+      <para>See the OpenLDAP documentation for more details.  Use
+	<filename>slappasswd</filename> to replace the plain text
+	password <literal>secret</literal> with a hash in
+	<literal>userPassword</literal>.  The path specified as
+	<literal>loginShell</literal> must exist in all the systems
+	where <literal>john</literal> is allowed to login.  Finally,
+	use the <literal>mdb</literal> administrator to modify the
+	database:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ldapadd -W -D "cn=mdbadmin,dc=domain,dc=example" -f domain.ldif</userinput></screen>
+      <para>Modifications to the <emphasis>global
+	  configuration</emphasis> section can only be performed by
+	the global super-user.  For example, assume that the option
+	<literal>olcTLSCipherSuite: HIGH:MEDIUM:SSLv3</literal> was
+	initially specified and must now be deleted.  First, create a
+	file that contains the following:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cat <replaceable>global_mod</replaceable></userinput>
+dn: cn=config
+changetype: modify
+delete: olcTLSCipherSuite</screen>
+      <para>Then, apply the modifications:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ldapmodify -f global_mod -x -D "cn=config" -W</userinput></screen>
+      <para>When asked, provide the password chosen in the
+	<emphasis>configuration backend</emphasis> section.  The
+	username is not required: here, <literal>cn=config</literal>
+	represents the DN of the database section to be modified.
+	Alternatively, use <literal>ldapmodify</literal> to delete a
+	single line of the database, <literal>ldapdelete</literal> to
+	delete a whole entry.</para>
+      <para>If something goes wrong, or if the global super-user
+	cannot access the configuration backend, it is possible to
+	delete and re-write the whole configuration:</para>
+      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>rm -rf /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.d/</userinput></screen>
+      <para><filename>slapd.ldif</filename> can then be edited and
+	imported again.  Please, follow this procedure only when no
+	other solution is available.</para>
+      <para>This is the configuration of the server only.  The same
+	machine can also host an LDAP client, with its own separate
+	configuration.</para>
@@ -2810,7 +3003,7 @@ host fantasia {
 	<callout arearefs="default-lease-time">
 	  <para>The default lease expiry time in seconds.  A client
-	    can be configured to override this value.  </para>
+	    can be configured to override this value.</para>
 	<callout arearefs="max-lease-time">
@@ -4088,7 +4281,7 @@ Starting smbd.</screen>
-	<title> Sample <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename></title>
+	<title>Sample <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename></title>
 	<programlisting>server prefer
@@ -4177,7 +4370,7 @@ driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift</programlisting>
 	directives in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>.  For
-      <programlisting> set filter dial 0 deny udp src eq 123
+      <programlisting>set filter dial 0 deny udp src eq 123
  # Prevent NTP traffic from initiating dial out
  set filter dial 1 permit 0 0
  set filter alive 0 deny udp src eq 123

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