svn commit: r52701 - head/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook

Ruey-Cherng Yu rcyu at
Thu Dec 20 06:29:25 UTC 2018

Author: rcyu
Date: Thu Dec 20 06:29:19 2018
New Revision: 52701

  - fix typo.
  Reported by:	lwhsu


Modified: head/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
--- head/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml	Wed Dec 19 19:51:24 2018	(r52700)
+++ head/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml	Thu Dec 20 06:29:19 2018	(r52701)
@@ -16,7 +16,8 @@
 --><!ENTITY chap.preface SYSTEM "preface/preface.xml">
 <!ENTITY % pgpkeys SYSTEM "../../../share/pgpkeys/pgpkeys.ent">
-<!-- $FreeBSD$ --><!-- PGP keyblocks --><!ENTITY pgpkey.aaron SYSTEM "aaron.key">
+<!-- $FreeBSD$ --><!-- PGP keyblocks --><!ENTITY pgpkey.0mp SYSTEM "0mp.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.aaron SYSTEM "aaron.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ache SYSTEM "ache.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.achim SYSTEM "achim.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.acm SYSTEM "acm.key">
@@ -44,7 +45,9 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.anray SYSTEM "anray.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.antoine SYSTEM "antoine.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.araujo SYSTEM "araujo.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.arichardson SYSTEM "arichardson.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ariff SYSTEM "ariff.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.arrowd SYSTEM "arrowd.key">
 <!ENTITY SYSTEM "art.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.arun SYSTEM "arun.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.arundel SYSTEM "arundel.key">
@@ -97,6 +100,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.bsd SYSTEM "bsd.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.bushman SYSTEM "bushman.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.bvs SYSTEM "bvs.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.bwidawsk SYSTEM "bwidawsk.key">
 <!ENTITY SYSTEM "bz.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.carl SYSTEM "carl.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.cel SYSTEM "cel.key">
@@ -165,9 +169,11 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ed SYSTEM "ed.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.edavis SYSTEM "edavis.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.edwin SYSTEM "edwin.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.egypcio SYSTEM "egypcio.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ehaupt SYSTEM "ehaupt.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.emaste SYSTEM "emaste.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.emax SYSTEM "emax.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ericbsd SYSTEM "ericbsd.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.erj SYSTEM "erj.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.erwin SYSTEM "erwin.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.eugen SYSTEM "eugen.key">
@@ -175,6 +181,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.fanf SYSTEM "fanf.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.farrokhi SYSTEM "farrokhi.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.feld SYSTEM "feld.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.fernape SYSTEM "fernape.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.fjoe SYSTEM "fjoe.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.flo SYSTEM "flo.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.fluffy SYSTEM "fluffy.key">
@@ -230,6 +237,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jch SYSTEM "jch.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jchandra SYSTEM "jchandra.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jdp SYSTEM "jdp.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jeb SYSTEM "jeb.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jedgar SYSTEM "jedgar.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jesper SYSTEM "jesper.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jgh SYSTEM "jgh.key">
@@ -238,6 +246,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jhay SYSTEM "jhay.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jhb SYSTEM "jhb.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jhibbits SYSTEM "jhibbits.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jhixson SYSTEM "jhixson.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jilles SYSTEM "jilles.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jim SYSTEM "jim.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jinmei SYSTEM "jinmei.key">
@@ -263,8 +272,10 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jpaetzel SYSTEM "jpaetzel.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jrm SYSTEM "jrm.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jsa SYSTEM "jsa.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jsm SYSTEM "jsm.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jtl SYSTEM "jtl.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.junovitch SYSTEM "junovitch.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jwb SYSTEM "jwb.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.jylefort SYSTEM "jylefort.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.kadesai SYSTEM "kadesai.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.kaiw SYSTEM "kaiw.key">
@@ -272,6 +283,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.kan SYSTEM "kan.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.karels SYSTEM "karels.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.kato SYSTEM "kato.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.kbowling SYSTEM "kbowling.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ken SYSTEM "ken.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.kensmith SYSTEM "kensmith.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.keramida SYSTEM "keramida.key">
@@ -294,6 +306,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.lbr SYSTEM "lbr.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.le SYSTEM "le.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.leeym SYSTEM "leeym.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.leitao SYSTEM "leitao.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ler SYSTEM "ler.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.leres SYSTEM "leres.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.lesi SYSTEM "lesi.key">
@@ -311,6 +324,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.lth SYSTEM "lth.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.lulf SYSTEM "lulf.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.luoqi SYSTEM "luoqi.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.luporl SYSTEM "luporl.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.lwhsu SYSTEM "lwhsu.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.lx SYSTEM "lx.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.madpilot SYSTEM "madpilot.key">
@@ -343,7 +357,9 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.mckusick SYSTEM "mckusick.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.mdf SYSTEM "mdf.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.melifaro SYSTEM "melifaro.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.meta SYSTEM "meta.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.metal SYSTEM "metal.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.mfechner SYSTEM "mfechner.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.mheinen SYSTEM "mheinen.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.mi SYSTEM "mi.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.mich SYSTEM "mich.key">
@@ -426,6 +442,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.qingli SYSTEM "qingli.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rafan SYSTEM "rafan.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rakuco SYSTEM "rakuco.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ram SYSTEM "ram.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ray SYSTEM "ray.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rcyu SYSTEM "rcyu.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rdivacky SYSTEM "rdivacky.key">
@@ -437,6 +454,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rgrimes SYSTEM "rgrimes.key">
 <!ENTITY SYSTEM "rich.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.riggs SYSTEM "riggs.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rigoletto SYSTEM "rigoletto.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rik SYSTEM "rik.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rink SYSTEM "rink.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rlibby SYSTEM "rlibby.key">
@@ -452,6 +470,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.romain SYSTEM "romain.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.royger SYSTEM "royger.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rpaulo SYSTEM "rpaulo.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rpokala SYSTEM "rpokala.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rrs SYSTEM "rrs.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.rstone SYSTEM "rstone.key">
 <!ENTITY SYSTEM "ru.key">
@@ -471,6 +490,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.seanc SYSTEM "seanc.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.secteam-secretary SYSTEM "secteam-secretary.key">
 <!ENTITY SYSTEM "security-officer.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.sef SYSTEM "sef.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.sem SYSTEM "sem.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.sephe SYSTEM "sephe.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.sepotvin SYSTEM "sepotvin.key">
@@ -484,6 +504,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.sjg SYSTEM "sjg.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.skra SYSTEM "skra.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.skreuzer SYSTEM "skreuzer.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.slavash SYSTEM "slavash.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.slm SYSTEM "slm.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.snb SYSTEM "snb.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.sobomax SYSTEM "sobomax.key">
@@ -506,6 +527,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tdb SYSTEM "tdb.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.theraven SYSTEM "theraven.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.thierry SYSTEM "thierry.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.thj SYSTEM "thj.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.thomas SYSTEM "thomas.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.thompsa SYSTEM "thompsa.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tijl SYSTEM "tijl.key">
@@ -514,6 +536,7 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tmclaugh SYSTEM "tmclaugh.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tmm SYSTEM "tmm.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tmseck SYSTEM "tmseck.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmunro SYSTEM "tmunro.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tobez SYSTEM "tobez.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tobik SYSTEM "tobik.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.tota SYSTEM "tota.key">
@@ -538,6 +561,7 @@
 <!ENTITY SYSTEM "vg.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.viny SYSTEM "viny.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.vkashyap SYSTEM "vkashyap.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.vmaffione SYSTEM "vmaffione.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.vs SYSTEM "vs.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.vsevolod SYSTEM "vsevolod.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.wblock SYSTEM "wblock.key">
@@ -560,6 +584,8 @@
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.ygy SYSTEM "ygy.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.yoichi SYSTEM "yoichi.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.yongari SYSTEM "yongari.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.yuri SYSTEM "yuri.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.yuripv SYSTEM "yuripv.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.yzlin SYSTEM "yzlin.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.zack SYSTEM "zack.key">
 <!ENTITY pgpkey.zbb SYSTEM "zbb.key">
@@ -595,6 +621,7 @@
 <!ENTITY chap.l10n SYSTEM "l10n/chapter.xml">
 <!ENTITY chap.cutting-edge SYSTEM "cutting-edge/chapter.xml">
 <!ENTITY chap.dtrace SYSTEM "dtrace/chapter.xml">
+<!ENTITY chap.usb-device-mode SYSTEM "usb-device-mode/chapter.xml">
 <!-- Part Four --><!ENTITY chap.serialcomms SYSTEM "serialcomms/chapter.xml">
 <!ENTITY chap.ppp-and-slip SYSTEM "ppp-and-slip/chapter.xml">
 <!ENTITY chap.mail SYSTEM "mail/chapter.xml">
@@ -670,6 +697,7 @@
+      <year>2018</year>
       <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
@@ -747,7 +775,13 @@
-      <para>歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis> 與 <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.4-RELEASE</emphasis> 的安裝與平日操作的說明。 這份使用手冊是很多人的集體創作,而且仍然『持續不斷』的進行中,因此部份章節可能尚未仍未完成,如果您有興趣協助本計畫的話,請寄電子郵件至 <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation
+	and day to day use of
+	<emphasis>FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE</emphasis> and
+	<emphasis>FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE</emphasis>.  This book is
+	the result of ongoing work by many individuals.  Some sections
+	might be outdated.  Those interested in helping to update and
+	expand this document should send email to the <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>.</para>
       <para>在 <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD 網站</link> 可以找到本文件的最新版本,舊版文件可從 <uri xlink:href=""></uri> 取得。本文件也提供各種格式與不同壓縮方式的版本可自 <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD FTP 伺服器</link> 或是其中一個 <link linkend="mirrors-ftp">鏡像網站</link> 下載。 列印出來的實體書面資料可在 <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD 商城</link> 購買。 此外,您可在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html">搜尋頁面</link> 中搜尋本文件或其他文件的資料。</para>
@@ -1369,112 +1403,124 @@
     <indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary></indexterm>
-    <para>FreeBSD 是一個從 4.4BSD-Lite 衍生出而能在以 Intel (x86 與 <trademark class="registered">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark class="registered">ARM</trademark>, Sun <trademark class="registered">UltraSPARC</trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台的工作也在進行中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend="history">FreeBSD 歷史</link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases">最新的發行版</link>。 若打算對於 FreeBSD 計劃有所貢獻的話 (程式碼、硬體、經費), 請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/articles/contributing/index.html">如何對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。</para>
+    <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD is an Open Source, standards-compliant Unix-like
+      operating system for x86 (both 32 and 64 bit), <trademark class="registered">ARM</trademark>, AArch64,
+      <trademark class="registered">RISC-V</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">MIPS</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">POWER</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">PowerPC</trademark>, and Sun <trademark class="registered">UltraSPARC</trademark>
+      computers.  It provides all the features that are
+      nowadays taken for granted, such as preemptive multitasking,
+      memory protection, virtual memory, multi-user facilities, SMP
+      support, all the Open Source development tools for different
+      languages and frameworks, and desktop features centered around
+      X Window System, KDE, or GNOME.  Its particular strengths
+      are:</para>
-    <sect2 xml:id="os-overview">
-      <title>FreeBSD 能做什麼?</title>
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Liberal Open Source license</emphasis>,
+	  which grants you rights to freely modify and extend
+	  its source code and incorporate it in both Open Source
+	  projects and closed products without imposing
+	  restrictions typical to copyleft licenses, as well
+	  as avoiding potential license incompatibility
+	  problems.</para>
+      </listitem>
-      <para>FreeBSD 提供給你許多先進功能。這些功能包括:</para>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Strong TCP/IP networking</emphasis>
+	  <indexterm xml:lang="en"> <primary>TCP/IP
+	      networking</primary></indexterm> - FreeBSD
+	  implements industry standard protocols with ever
+	  increasing performance and scalability.  This makes
+	  it a good match in both server, and routing/firewalling
+	  roles - and indeed many companies and vendors use it
+	  precisely for that purpose.</para>
+      </listitem>
-      <itemizedlist>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>動態優先權調整的 <emphasis>先佔式多工</emphasis> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>
-	    </indexterm> 能夠確保,即使在系統負擔很重的情況下,程式執行平順並且應用程式與使用者公平地共享資源。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Fully integrated OpenZFS support</emphasis>,
+	  including root-on-ZFS, ZFS Boot Environments, fault
+	  management, administrative delegation, support for jails,
+	  FreeBSD specific documentation, and system installer
+	  support.</para>
+      </listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para><emphasis>多人共用</emphasis><indexterm>
-	      <primary>multi-user facilities</primary>
-	    </indexterm> 代表著許多人可以同時使用一個 FreeBSD 系統來處理各自的事務。 系統的硬體周邊 (如印表機及磁帶機) 也可以讓所有的使用者適當地分享。 也可以針對各別使用者或一群使用者的系統資源,予以設限,以保護系統不致被過度使用。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Extensive security features</emphasis>,
+	  from the Mandatory Access Control framework to Capsicum
+	  capability and sandbox mechanisms.</para>
+      </listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>強大的 <emphasis>TCP/IP 網路</emphasis><indexterm>
-	      <primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>
-	    </indexterm> 功能可支援許多業界標準,如:SCTP、DHCP、NFS、NIS、PPP、SLIP、IPSec、IPv6 的支援,也就是說 FreeBSD 可以容易地跟其他作業系統透過網路共同運作,或是當作企業的伺服器用途 ,例如提供遠端檔案共享 (NFS) 及電子郵件等服務, 或是讓您的企業連上網際網路並提供 WWW、FTP、路由及防火牆 (安全性) 等必備服務。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Over 30 thousand prebuilt
+	    packages</emphasis> for all supported architectures,
+	  and the Ports Collection which makes it easy to build your
+	  own, customized ones.</para>
+      </listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para><emphasis>記憶體保護</emphasis> 能確保程式 (或使用者) 不會互相干擾,即使任何程式有不正常的運作,都不會影響其他程式的執行。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Documentation</emphasis> - in addition
+	  to Handbook and books from different authors that cover
+	  topics ranging from system administration to kernel
+	  internals, there are also the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>man</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> pages, not only
+	  for userspace daemons, utilities, and configuration files,
+	  but also for kernel driver APIs (section 9) and individual
+	  drivers (section 4).</para>
+      </listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>業界標準的 <emphasis>X Window 系統</emphasis><indexterm>
-		<primary>X Window System</primary>
-	      </indexterm> (X11R7) 可以在常見的便宜 VGA 顯示卡/螢幕, 提供了圖形化的使用者介面 (GUI),並且包括了完整的原始程式碼。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Simple and consistent repository structure
+	    and build system</emphasis> - FreeBSD uses a single
+	  repository for all of its components, both kernel and
+	  userspace.  This, along with an unified and easy to
+	  customize build system and a well thought out development
+	  process makes it easy to integrate FreeBSD with build
+	  infrastructure for your own product.</para>
+      </listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para><indexterm>
-	      <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
-	      <secondary>Linux</secondary>
-	    </indexterm> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
-	      <secondary>SCO</secondary>
-	    </indexterm> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
-	      <secondary>SVR4</secondary>
-	    </indexterm> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
-	      <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>
-	    </indexterm> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
-	      <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>
-	    </indexterm> <emphasis>Binary 相容性</emphasis> 可執行許多其他作業系統 (如: Linux、SCO、SVR4、BSDI 和 NetBSD) 的可執行檔。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Staying true to Unix philosophy</emphasis>,
+	  preferring composability instead of monolithic <quote>all
+	    in one</quote> daemons with hardcoded behavior.</para>
+      </listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>數以萬計的 <emphasis>立即可以執行</emphasis> 的應用程式,這些都可透過 FreeBSD 的 <emphasis>Port</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>套件</emphasis> 管理機制來取得。 不再需要費心到網路上到處搜尋所需要的軟體。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en"><indexterm xml:lang="en"> <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
+	    <secondary>Linux</secondary></indexterm>
+	  <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with Linux,
+	  which makes it possible to run many Linux binaries without
+	  the need for virtualisation.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>在網路上有數以千計 <emphasis>易於移植</emphasis> 的應用程式。FreeBSD 的原始程式碼與許多常見的商業版 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 系統都相容, 所以大部分的程式都只需要很少的修改 (或根本不用修改) ,就可以編譯執行。</para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>依需要換頁的 <emphasis>虛擬記憶體</emphasis><indexterm>
-	      <primary>virtual memory</primary>
-	    </indexterm> 及 <quote>合併式 VM/buffer 快取</quote> 設計,有效的滿足了需使用大量記憶體的程式,同時也能維持與其他使用者的互動。</para>
-	</listitem>
+    <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<indexterm xml:lang="en">
+	<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>
+      </indexterm> release from Computer
+      Systems Research Group (CSRG)<indexterm xml:lang="en">
+	<primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>
+      </indexterm> at the University of California at Berkeley, and
+      carries on the distinguished tradition of BSD systems
+      development.  In addition to the fine work provided by CSRG,
+      the FreeBSD Project has put in many thousands of man-hours
+      into extending the functionality and fine-tuning the system
+      for maximum performance and reliability
+      in real-life load situations.  FreeBSD offers performance and
+      reliability on par with other Open Source and commercial
+      offerings, combined with cutting-edge features not available
+      anywhere else.</para>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>支援 CPU 的<emphasis>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</emphasis><indexterm>
-	      <primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing
-		(SMP)</primary>
-	    </indexterm>:可以支援多 CPU 的電腦系統。</para>
-	</listitem>
+    <sect2 xml:id="os-overview">
+      <title>FreeBSD 能做什麼?</title>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para><indexterm>
-	      <primary>compilers</primary>
-	      <secondary>C</secondary>
-	    </indexterm><indexterm>
-	      <primary>compilers</primary>
-	      <secondary>C++</secondary>
-	    </indexterm>完全相容的 <emphasis>C</emphasis>、<emphasis>C++</emphasis> 以及 Fortran 的環境和其他開發工具。 以及其他許多可供進階研發的程式語言也收集在 Port 和套件集。</para>
-	</listitem>
+      <para xml:lang="en">The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly
+	limited only by your own imagination.  From software
+	development to factory automation, inventory control to
+	azimuth correction of remote satellite antennae; if it can be
+	done with a commercial <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> product then it is more than
+	likely that you can do it with FreeBSD too!  FreeBSD also benefits
+	significantly from literally thousands of high quality
+	applications developed by research centers and universities
+	around the world, often available at little to no cost.</para>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>整個系統都有 <emphasis>原始程式碼</emphasis><indexterm>
-	      <primary>source code</primary>
-	    </indexterm>, 這讓你對作業環境擁有最完全的掌握度。 既然能擁有完全開放的系統,何苦被特定封閉軟體所約束,任廠商擺佈呢?</para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>廣泛且豐富的 <emphasis>線上文件</emphasis>。</para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para><emphasis>當然囉,還不止如此!</emphasis></para>
-	</listitem>
-      </itemizedlist>
-      <para>FreeBSD 系統乃是基於美國加州大學柏克萊分校的電腦系統研究組 (Computer Systems Research Group 也就是 CSRG) 所發行的 4.4BSD-Lite<indexterm>
-	  <primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>
-	</indexterm>,以及基於 BSD 系統開發的優良傳統。 除了由 CSRG 所提供的高品質的成果, 為了提供可處理真正具負荷的工作, FreeBSD 計劃也投入了數千小時以上的細部調整, 以能獲得最好的執行效率以及系統的穩定度。 正當許多商業上的巨人正努力地希望能提供效能及穩定時,FreeBSD 已經具備這樣的特質,並具有其他地方沒有的尖端功能。</para>
-      <para>FreeBSD 的運用範圍無限,其實完全限制在你的想像力上。 從軟體的開發到工廠自動化,或是人造衛星上面的天線的方位角度的遠端控制; 這些功能若可以用商用的 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 產品來達成, 那麼極有可能使用 FreeBSD 也能辦到! FreeBSD 也受益於來自於全球各研究中心及大學所開發的數千個高品質的軟體 ,這些通常只需要花費很少的費用或根本就是免費的。 當然也有商業軟體,而且出現的數目是與日俱增。</para>
       <para>由於每個人都可以取得 FreeBSD 的原始程式碼, 這個系統可以被量身訂做成能執行任何原本完全無法想像的功能或計劃, 而對於從各廠商取得的作業系統通常沒有辦法這樣地被修改。 以下提供一些人們使用 FreeBSD 的例子:</para>
@@ -1483,9 +1529,7 @@
-	      <para>全球資訊網伺服器<indexterm>
-		  <primary>web servers</primary>
-		</indexterm> (標準的或更安全的 [SSL])</para>
+	      <para xml:lang="en">Web servers</para>
@@ -1507,12 +1551,15 @@
-	      <para><indexterm>
+	      <para xml:lang="en">
+		<indexterm xml:lang="en">
 		  <primary>electronic mail</primary>
-		</indexterm><indexterm>
+		</indexterm>
+		<indexterm xml:lang="en">
-		</indexterm> 電子郵件伺服器</para>
+		</indexterm>
+		Email servers</para>
@@ -1568,6 +1615,19 @@
       <indexterm><primary>使用者</primary> <secondary>執行 FreeBSD 的大型站台</secondary></indexterm>
+      <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD has been known for its web serving capabilities -
+	sites that run on FreeBSD include
+	<link xlink:href="">Hacker News</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">Netcraft</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">NetEase</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">Netflix</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">Sina</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">Sony Japan</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">Rambler</link>,
+	<link xlink:href="">Yahoo!</link>, and
+	<link xlink:href="">Yandex</link>.
+      </para>
       <para>FreeBSD 先進的功能、成熟的安全性、可預測的發佈週期以及自由的授權條款,讓 FreeBSD 已經被用來做為建立許多商業、開源應用、裝置以及產品的平台,有許多世界上最大的資訊公司使用 FreeBSD:</para>
@@ -1597,25 +1657,23 @@
+	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Dell EMC Isilon</link>
+	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
+	      <primary>Isilon</primary>
+	    </indexterm> - Isilon's enterprise storage appliances
+	    are based on FreeBSD.  The extremely liberal FreeBSD license
+	    allowed Isilon to integrate their intellectual property
+	    throughout the kernel and focus on building their product
+	    instead of an operating system.</para>
+	</listitem>
+	<listitem>
 	  <para><link xlink:href="">Dell KACE</link> <indexterm>
 	      <primary>Dell KACE</primary>
 	    </indexterm> - KACE 系統管理設備中運作了 FreeBSD,因為 FreeBSD 的可靠性、可擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。</para>
-	  <para><link xlink:href="">Experts Exchange</link> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>Experts Exchange</primary>
-	    </indexterm> - 所有面對大眾的 Web 伺服器皆由 FreeBSD 驅動,且他們大量使用 Jail 來隔離開發與測試環境,減少了虛擬化的額外開銷。</para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para><link xlink:href="">Isilon</link> <indexterm>
-	      <primary>Isilon</primary>
-	    </indexterm> - Isilon 的企業存儲設備以 FreeBSD 為基礎。非常自由的 FreeBSD 授權條款讓 Isilon 整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。</para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
 	  <para><link xlink:href="">iXsystems</link> <indexterm>
 	    </indexterm> - 統合存儲 (Unified Storage) 設備的 TrueNAS 產品線是以 FreeBSD 為基礎。除了該公司自己的商業產品外,iXsystems 也管理著 TrueOS 和 FreeNAS 兩個開源計劃的開發。</para>
@@ -1769,92 +1827,9 @@
-      <para>FreeBSD 也同時被用來驅動一些網際網路上的大型網站,包括:</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href="">list
+	  of products based on FreeBSD</link>.</para>
-      <itemizedlist>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Yahoo!</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Yahoo!</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Yandex</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Yandex</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Rambler</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Rambler</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Sina</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Sina</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Pair
-	      Networks</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Pair Networks</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Sony
-	      Japan</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Sony Japan</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Netcraft</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Netcraft</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Netflix</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Netflix</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">NetEase</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>NetEase</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">Weathernews</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>Weathernews</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="">TELEHOUSE
-	      America</link>
-	    <indexterm xml:lang="en">
-	      <primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>
-	    </indexterm></para>
-	</listitem>
-      </itemizedlist>
-      <para>還有許多的應用。維基百科也維護了一份 <link xlink:href="">以 FreeBSD 為基礎的產品</link>。</para>
@@ -1989,9 +1964,20 @@
 	  <term>FreeBSD 核心團隊<anchor xml:id="development-core"/></term>
-	    <para>如果把 FreeBSD 看成是一家公司的話, <firstterm>FreeBSD 核心團隊 (FreeBSD core team)</firstterm><indexterm>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm>
+	      <indexterm xml:lang="en">
 		<primary>core team</primary>
-	      </indexterm> 就相當於董事會。 核心團隊的主要職責在於確保此計劃有良好的架構,以朝著正確的方向發展。 此外,邀請熱血且負責的軟體開發者加入提交者的行列, 以在若干成員離去時得以補充新血。 目前的核心團隊是在 2014 年 7 月從提交者候選人之中選出來的,這個選舉每兩年會舉辦一次。</para>
+	      </indexterm> would be equivalent to the board of
+	      directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company.  The
+	      primary task of the core team is to make sure the
+	      project, as a whole, is in good shape and is heading in
+	      the right directions.  Inviting dedicated and
+	      responsible developers to join our group of committers
+	      is one of the functions of the core team, as is the
+	      recruitment of new core team members as others move on.
+	      The current core team was elected from a pool of
+	      committer candidates in July 2018.  Elections are held
+	      every 2 years.</para>
 	      <para>如同多數的開發者,核心團隊大部分成員加入 FreeBSD 開發都是志工性質而已, 並未從本計劃中獲得任何薪酬,所以這只是一個 <quote>承諾</quote> 不應該被誤解為 <quote>保證支援</quote> 才對。 前面用 <quote>董事會</quote> 來舉例可能不是很恰當,或許我們應該說: 他們是一群自願放棄原本的優渥生活、個人其他領域成就, 而選擇投入 FreeBSD 開發的熱血有為者才對!</para>
@@ -2028,7 +2014,15 @@
-      <para>所有最近的 FreeBSD 版本在安裝程式 (不是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 就是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>) 都有提供一個選項在初始系統安裝時可安裝額外的說明文件到 <filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</filename>。說明文件也可在往後使用套件安裝,詳細說明於 <xref linkend="doc-ports-install-package"/>。您可以使用任何支援 HTML 的瀏覽器進入下列 URL 檢視已安裝在本機的操作手冊:</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">All supported FreeBSD versions provide an option in the
+	installer to
+	install additional documentation under
+	<filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</filename> during the
+	initial system setup.  Documentation may also be installed at
+	any later time using packages as described in
+	<xref linkend="doc-ports-install-package"/>.  You may view the
+	locally installed manuals with any HTML capable browser using
+	the following URLs:</para>
@@ -2125,8 +2119,54 @@
-    <para>自從 FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE 開始,FreeBSD 提供一個易用,文字介面的安裝程式 <application>bsdinstall</application>。 本章描述如何用 <application>bsdinstall</application> 來安裝 FreeBSD。</para>
+    <para xml:lang="en">There are several different ways of getting FreeBSD to run,
+      depending on the environment.  Those are:</para>
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en">Virtual Machine images, to download and import on a
+	  virtual environment of choice.  These can be downloaded from
+	  the <link xlink:href="">Download
+	    FreeBSD</link> page.  There are images for KVM
+	  (<quote>qcow2</quote>), VMWare (<quote>vmdk</quote>),
+	  Hyper-V (<quote>vhd</quote>), and raw device images that are
+	  universally supported.  These are not installation images,
+	  but rather the preconfigured (<quote>already
+	    installed</quote>) instances, ready to run and perform
+	  post-installation tasks.</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en">Virtual Machine images available at Amazon's <link xlink:href="">AWS
+	    Marketplace</link>, <link xlink:href="">Microsoft
+	    Azure Marketplace</link>, and <link xlink:href="">Google
+	    Cloud Platform</link>, to run on their respective hosting
+	  services.  For more information on deploying FreeBSD on Azure
+	  please consult the relevant chapter in the <link xlink:href="">Azure
+	    Documentation</link>.</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en">SD card images, for embedded systems such as Raspberry
+	  Pi or BeagleBone Black.  These can be downloaded from the
+	  <link xlink:href="">Download
+	    FreeBSD</link> page.  These files must be uncompressed and
+	  written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board
+	  will then boot.</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+	<para xml:lang="en">Installation images, to install FreeBSD on
+	  a hard drive for the usual desktop, laptop, or server
+	  systems.</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+    <para xml:lang="en">The rest of this chapter describes the fourth case,
+      explaining how to install FreeBSD using the text-based
+      installation program named
+      <application>bsdinstall</application>.</para>
     <para>一般來說,本章所寫的安裝說明是針對 <trademark>i386</trademark> 和 <acronym>AMD64</acronym> 架構。如果可以用於其他平台,將會列表說明。 安裝程式和本章所敘述的內容可能會有些微差異,所以請將本章視為通用的指引,而不是完全照著來做。</para>
@@ -2209,15 +2249,6 @@
-	<term xml:lang="en">pc98</term>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>NEC PC-9801/9821 系列幾乎所有 i386 相容處理器包括 80486、<trademark class="registered">Pentium</trademark>、 <trademark class="registered">Pentium</trademark> Pro 和 <trademark class="registered">Pentium</trademark> II 都有支援。 所有 AMD, Cyrix, IBM, 及 IDT 的i386 相容處理器都有支援。 相容 NEC PC-9801 的 EPSON PC-386/486/586 系列都有支援。 NEC FC-9801/9821 及 NEC SV-98 系列也有支援。</para>
-	  <para>不支援高解析度模式。NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2 和 NEC PC-H98 系列只支援正常 (PC-9801 相容) 模式。 FreeBSD 對稱多處理器 <acronym>SMP</acronym> 相關功能並不支援。 PC-H98, SV-H98 和FC-H98 新延伸標準架構 (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) 匯流排不支援。</para>
-	</listitem>
-      </varlistentry>
-      <varlistentry>
 	<term xml:lang="en">powerpc</term>
 	  <para>所有內建 <acronym>USB</acronym> 的 New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> 系統都有支援。 <acronym>SMP</acronym> 在多 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 的機器都有支援。</para>
@@ -2306,7 +2337,15 @@
 	<title>檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表</title>
-	<para>儘管 FreeBSD 計劃努力確保每個 FreeBSD 發行版能夠儘可能地穩定,但錯誤偶爾還是會悄悄出現,並有極小的可能會發生影響安裝流程的錯誤,當這些問題被發現並修正後,會被紀錄在 FreeBSD 網站的 FreeBSD 勘誤表 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.1R/errata.html"></link>)。 安裝前先檢查勘誤表,以確保沒有會影響到安裝的問題。</para>
+	<para xml:lang="en">Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that
+	  each release of FreeBSD is as stable as possible, bugs
+	  occasionally creep into the process.  On very rare occasions
+	  those bugs affect the installation process.  As these
+	  problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the
+	  FreeBSD Errata (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/12.0R/errata.html"></link>)
+	  on the FreeBSD web site.  Check the errata before installing to
+	  make sure that there are no problems that might affect the
+	  installation.</para>
 	<para>所有發行版的資訊和勘誤表可以在 FreeBSD 網站的發行資訊找到 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html"></link>)。</para>
@@ -2341,7 +2380,7 @@
 	  <para><literal>-memstick.img</literal>:這個檔案含有所有安裝 FreeBSD 所需的檔案,包含原始碼及 Port 套件集。這個檔案應依據以下操作指示寫入到 <acronym>USB</acronym> 隨身碟使用。</para>
 	  <para><literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>:類似 <literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>,但不含安裝檔 (可依所要下載),安裝時需要網際網路連線,可依 <xref linkend="bsdinstall-usb"/> 的說明將此檔案寫入至 <acronym>USB</acronym> 隨身碟。</para>
@@ -4895,11 +4934,6 @@ root     5211  0.0  0.2  3620  1724   2  I+    2:09AM 
-	      <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb/</filename></entry>
-	      <entry><citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 設定檔。</entry>
-	    </row>
-	    <row>
 	      <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/periodic/</filename></entry>
 	      <entry>每日、每週、每月透過 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,執行的定期排程 Script,詳情請參閱 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</entry>
@@ -6108,7 +6142,10 @@ Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free
     <para>要持續追蹤 Port 的更新可以訂閱 <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD Port 郵遞論壇</link> 與 <link xlink:href="">FreeBSD Port 問題郵遞論壇</link>。</para>
-      <para>在安裝任何應用程式之前,請先查看 <link xlink:href=""/> 是否有與該應用程式相關的安全性問題或輸入 <command>pkg audit -F</command> 來檢查所有已安裝的應用程式是否有已知的漏洞。</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">Before installing any application, check <link xlink:href=""/>
+	for security issues related to the application or type
+	<command>pkg audit -F</command> to check all installed
+	applications for known vulnerabilities.</para>
     <para>本章接下來的部份將說明如何在 FreeBSD 使用 Binary 套件及 Port 套件安裝與管理第三方軟體。</para>
@@ -6240,7 +6277,12 @@ Info:   Lists information about open files (similar to
       <para>FreeBSD 內建啟動 (Bootstrap) 工具可用來下載並安裝 <application>pkg</application> 及其操作手冊。這個工具是設計在 FreeBSD 版本 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 之後使用。</para>
-	<para>不是所有 FreeBSD 版本及架構支援此啟動程序,目前支援的清單列於 <link xlink:href=""/>,對不支援的版本,必須改透過 Port 套件集或者 Binary 套件來安裝 <application>pkg</application>。</para>
+	<para xml:lang="en">Not all FreeBSD versions and architectures
+	  support this bootstrap process.  The current list is at
+	  <link xlink:href=""/>.
+	  For other cases,
+	  <application>pkg</application> must instead be installed
+	  from the Ports Collection or as a binary package.</para>
@@ -6550,7 +6592,18 @@ Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done</screen>
       <para>下面我們會介紹如何使用 Port 套件集來安裝、移除軟體的基本用法。 <command>make</command> 可用的目標及環境變數詳細說明可參閱 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ports</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
-	<para>在編譯任何 Port 套件前,請先確認已經如前章節所敘述之方法更新 Port 套件集。安裝任何第三方軟體皆可能會導致安全性漏洞,建議在安裝前先閱讀 <link xlink:href=""/> 了解  Port 已知的安全性問題。或者在每次安裝新 Port 前執行 <command>pkg audit -F</command>。此指令可以設定在每日系統安全性檢查時自動完成安全性稽查以及更新漏洞資料庫。要取得更多資訊,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-audit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
+	<para xml:lang="en">Before compiling any port, be sure to update the Ports
+	  Collection as described in the previous section.  Since
+	  the installation of any third-party software can introduce
+	  security vulnerabilities, it is recommended to first check
+	  <link xlink:href=""/>
+	  for known security issues related to the port.  Alternately,
+	  run <command>pkg audit -F</command> before installing a new
+	  port.  This command can be configured to automatically
+	  perform a security audit and an update of the vulnerability
+	  database during the daily security system check.  For more
+	  information, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-audit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
+	  <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
       <para>使用 Port 套件集會假設您擁有可正常連線的網路,同時也會需要超級使用者的權限。</para>
@@ -6692,7 +6745,7 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
       <sect3 xml:id="ports-upgrading-tools">
-	<title>升級與管理 Port 的工具</title>
+	<title xml:lang="en">Tools to Upgrade and Manage Ports</title>
 	<indexterm><primary>ports</primary> <secondary>upgrading-tools</secondary></indexterm>
@@ -7266,7 +7319,40 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
     <sect2 xml:id="x-config-video-cards">
+      <para xml:lang="en">Because of changes made in recent versions of FreeBSD, it
+	is now possible to use graphics drivers provided by the Ports
+	framework or as packages.  As such, users can use one of the
+	following drivers available from
+	<package>graphics/drm-kmod</package>.</para>
+	<varlistentry xml:id="x-config-video-cards-ports">
+	  <term xml:lang="en">Intel KMS driver</term>
+	  <term xml:lang="en">Radeon KMS driver</term>
+	  <term xml:lang="en">AMD KMS driver</term>
+	  <listitem>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">2D and 3D acceleration is supported on most
+	      Intel KMS driver graphics cards provided by Intel.</para>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">Driver name: <literal>i915kms</literal></para>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">2D and 3D acceleration is supported on most older
+	      Radeon KMS driver graphics cards provided by AMD.</para>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">Driver name: <literal>radeonkms</literal></para>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">2D and 3D acceleration is supported on most newer
+	      AMD KMS driver graphics cards provided by AMD.</para>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">Driver name: <literal>amdgpu</literal></para>
+	    <para xml:lang="en">For reference, please see <link xlink:href=""/>
+	      or <link xlink:href=""/>
+	      for a list of supported GPUs.</para>
+	  </listitem>
+	</varlistentry>
 	<varlistentry xml:id="x-config-video-cards-intel">
 	  <term xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark></term>
@@ -7836,7 +7922,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
-	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
+	  <contrib>Originally contributed by </contrib>
@@ -7855,7 +7941,14 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
       <para>更改關 (<literal>off</literal>) 為開 (<literal>on</literal>) 然後儲存編輯。在此項目中的 <literal>ttyv8</literal> 代表 <application>XDM</application> 會在第 9 個虛擬終端機執行。</para>
-      <para><application>XDM</application> 的設定目錄位於 <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm</filename>。此目錄中包含數個可用來更改 <application>XDM</application> 行為與外觀的檔案以及在 <application>XDM</application> 執行時用來設定桌面的一些  Script 及程式,<xref linkend="xdm-config-files"/> 摘要了每個檔案的功能。這些檔案正確的語法與用法在 <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 有說明。</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">The <application>XDM</application> configuration directory
+	is located in <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xdm</filename>.
+	This directory contains several files used to change the
+	behavior and appearance of <application>XDM</application>, as
+	well as a few scripts and programs used to set up the desktop
+	when <application>XDM</application> is running.  <xref linkend="xdm-config-files"/> summarizes the function of each
+	of these files.  The exact syntax and usage of these files is
+	described in <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
       <table frame="none" pgwide="1" xml:id="xdm-config-files">
 	<title>XDM 設定檔</title>
@@ -7886,7 +7979,10 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
 	      <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>Xsession</filename></entry>
-	      <entry>預設的登入階段 Script,使用者登入之後由 <application>XDM</application> 執行。一般每一位使用者都會有自訂的階段 Script 在 <filename>~/.xsession</filename> 來覆蓋此 Script 的設定。</entry>
+	      <entry xml:lang="en">Default session script for logins which is run by
+		<application>XDM</application> after a user has logged
+		in.  This points to a customized session
+		script in <filename>~/.xsession</filename>.</entry>
@@ -7918,13 +8014,20 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
       <para>預設只有同系統的使用者可以使用 <application>XDM</application> 登入。要開啟讓其他系統的使用者可連線到顯示伺服器,需編輯存取控制規則及開啟連線傾聽程式。</para>
-      <para>要設定 <application>XDM</application> 傾聽作何遠端的連線,在 <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-config</filename> 中的 <literal>DisplayManager.requestPort</literal> 行前加上 <literal>!</literal> 來註解該行:</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">To configure <application>XDM</application> to listen for
+	any remote connection, comment out the
+	<literal>DisplayManager.requestPort</literal> line in
+	<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</filename> by
+	putting a <literal>!</literal> in front of it:</para>
       <screen xml:lang="en">! SECURITY: do not listen for XDMCP or Chooser requests
 ! Comment out this line if you want to manage X terminals with xdm
 DisplayManager.requestPort:     0</screen>
-      <para>儲存編輯並重新啟動 <application>XDM</application>,要限制遠端存取,請看 <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/Xaccess</filename> 中的範例項目,並參考 <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得進一步資訊。</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en">Save the edits and restart <application>XDM</application>.
+	To restrict remote access, look at the example entries in
+	<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess</filename> and refer
+	to <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for further information.</para>
@@ -7986,9 +8089,7 @@ hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
       <para>第三種方法是使用 <application>XDM</application> 做為顯示管理程式,在這個方法需要建立一個可執行的 <filename>~/.xsession</filename>:</para>
-      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "#!/bin/sh" > ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/gnome-session" >> ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
+      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/gnome-session" > ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
     <sect2 xml:id="x11-wm-kde">
@@ -8031,9 +8132,7 @@ hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
       <para>第三種啟動 <application>KDE</application> 的方式是透過 <application>XDM</application>,要使用這個方法需要建立一個可執行的 <filename>~/.xsession</filename> 如下:</para>
-      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "#!/bin/sh" > ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startkde" >> ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
+      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startkde" > ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
       <para>啟動 <application>KDE</application> 之後,請參考內建的說明系統來取得更多有關如何使用各種選單及應用程式的資訊。</para>
@@ -8052,15 +8151,28 @@ hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
       <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11-wm/xfce4</userinput>
 <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-      <para>不像 <application>GNOME</application> 或 <application>KDE</application>,<application>Xfce</application> 並沒有自己的登入管理程式,要由指令列啟動 <application>Xfce</application> 需輸入 <command>startx</command>,在這之前需先加入其項目到 <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>:</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en"><application>Xfce</application> uses
+	<application>D-Bus</application> for a message bus.  This
+	application is automatically installed as dependency of
+	<application>Xfce</application>.  Enable it in
+	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> so it will be started when
+	the system boots:</para>
-      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 --with-ck-launch" > ~/.xinitrc</userinput></screen>
+      <programlisting xml:lang="en">dbus_enable="YES"</programlisting>
+      <para xml:lang="en">Unlike <application>GNOME</application> or
+	<application>KDE</application>,
+	<application>Xfce</application> does not provide its own login
+	manager.  In order to start <application>Xfce</application>
+	from the command line by typing <command>startx</command>,
+	first create <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> with this
+	command:</para>
+      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo ". /usr/local/etc/xdg/xfce4/xinitrc" > ~/.xinitrc</userinput></screen>
       <para>另一種方式是使用 <application>XDM</application>,要設定這個方式需建立一個可執行的 <filename>~/.xsession</filename>:</para>
-      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "#!/bin/sh" > ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 --with-ck-launch" >> ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
+      <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo ". /usr/local/etc/xdg/xfce4/xinitrc" > ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
@@ -8548,7 +8660,12 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
-      <para><application>Firefox</application> 是一套已完整植到 FreeBSD 的開放源始碼瀏覽器,它具備符合 HTML 標準的顯示引擎、頁籤瀏覽、彈出視窗封鎖、擴充套件、強化安全性及其他更多功能。<application>Firefox</application> 的基礎使用了 <application>Mozilla</application> 的程式庫。</para>
+      <para xml:lang="en"><application>Firefox</application> is an open source
+	browser that features a
+	standards-compliant HTML display engine, tabbed browsing,
+	popup blocking, extensions, improved security, and more.
+	<application>Firefox</application> is based on the
+	<application>Mozilla</application> codebase.</para>
       <para>要安裝最新釋出版本的 <application>Firefox</application> 套件可輸入:</para>
@@ -8564,81 +8681,6 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
       <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/firefox</userinput>
 <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-    <sect3 xml:id="moz-java-plugin">
-      <title>Firefox 與 <trademark>Java</trademark> 附加元件</title>
-      <para><application>Firefox</application> 的安裝並不包含 <trademark>Java</trademark> 支援,雖然如此 <package>java/icedtea-web</package> 提供了免費的網頁瀏覽器附加元件來執行 Java applet,此附加元件可以用 Binary  套件安裝:</para>


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