svn commit: r43873 - head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n

Dru Lavigne dru at
Tue Feb 11 16:35:55 UTC 2014

Author: dru
Date: Tue Feb 11 16:35:54 2014
New Revision: 43873

  More tightening and clarification in this chapter. More commits to follow.
  Sponsored by: iXsystems


Modified: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml
--- head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml	Tue Feb 11 15:38:07 2014	(r43872)
+++ head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml	Tue Feb 11 16:35:54 2014	(r43873)
@@ -173,64 +173,60 @@
     <sect2 xml:id="setting-locale">
       <title>Setting Locale for Login Shell</title>
-      <para>Usually it is sufficient to export the value of the
-	locale name as <envar>LANG</envar> in the login shell.  This
-	could be done in the user's <filename>~/.login_conf</filename>
+      <para>Locale settings are configured either in a user's
+	<filename>~/.login_conf</filename>
 	or in the startup file of the user's shell:
-	(<filename>~/.profile</filename>,
+	<filename>~/.profile</filename>,
 	<filename>~/.bashrc</filename>, or
-	<filename>~/.cshrc</filename>).  There is no need to set the
-	locale subsets such as <envar>LC_CTYPE</envar> or
-	<envar>LC_CTIME</envar>.  Refer to language-specific &os;
-	documentation for more information.</para>
+	<filename>~/.cshrc</filename>.</para>
-      <para>Each user should set the following two environment
-	variables in their configuration files:</para>
+      <para>Two environment
+	variables should be set:</para>
-	  <para><envar>LANG</envar> for &posix;<indexterm>
+	  <para><envar>LANG</envar>, which sets the locale<indexterm>
-	    </indexterm>
-	    &man.setlocale.3; family functions</para>
+	    </indexterm></para>
-	  <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar> for applications' MIME
-	    character set</para>
+	  <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar> which sets the MIME
+	    character set used by applications</para>
-      <para>These should be set in the user's shell configuration, the
-	specific application configuration, and the
+      <para>In addition to the user's shell configuration, these
+	variables should also be set for
+	specific application configuration and
 	<application>Xorg</application> configuration.</para>
 	<indexterm><primary>login class</primary></indexterm>
-	<para>This section describes the two methods for setting
-	  locale.  The first is recommended and assigns the
-	  environment variables in the
-	  <link linkend="login-class">login class</link>.  The second
-	  method adds the environment variable assignments to the
-	  system's shell
-	  <link linkend="startup-file">startup file</link>.</para>
+	<para>Two methods are available for making the needed variable
+	  assignments: the
+	  <link linkend="login-class">login class</link> method, which
+	  is the recommended method, and the
+	  <link linkend="startup-file">startup file</link> method.
+	  The next two sections demonstrate how to use both methods.</para>
 	<sect3 xml:id="login-class">
 	  <title>Login Classes Method</title>
-	  <para>This method assigns the required environment variables for
+	  <para>This first method is the recommended method as it
+	    assigns the required environment variables for
 	    locale name and MIME character sets
 	    for every possible shell.
-	    This setup can be either be
-	    performed by each user or it can be performed for all users by the
+	    This setup can either be
+	    performed by each user or it can be configured for all users by the
-	    <para>This minimal example sets both variables for the
-	      Latin-1 encoding.  These lines were added to the
-	      <filename>.login_conf</filename> in an individual user's
+	    <para>This minimal example sets both variables for
+	      Latin-1 encoding in the
+	      <filename>.login_conf</filename> of an individual user's
 	      home directory:</para>
@@ -240,9 +236,9 @@
 	    <indexterm><primary>Traditional Chinese</primary>
 	      <secondary>BIG-5 encoding</secondary></indexterm>
 	    <para>Here is an example of a user's
-	      <filename>.login_conf</filename> that sets the variables
+	      <filename>~/.login_conf</filename> that sets the variables
 	      for Traditional Chinese in BIG-5 encoding.  More
-	      variables are set because some applications do not
+	      variables are needed because some applications do not
 	      correctly respect locale variables for Chinese,
 	      Japanese, and Korean:</para>
@@ -260,19 +256,16 @@ me:\
 	:xmodifiers="@im=gcin": #Set gcin as the XIM Input Server</programlisting>
-	    <para>See &man.login.conf.5; for more
-	      details.</para>
-	    <para>Alternately, the superuser can configure all users of the system for localization.  The following variables in the user's login class in
-	      <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> set the correct
-	      language:</para>
+	    <para>Alternately, the superuser can configure all users of the system for localization.  The following variables in
+	      <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> are used to set the locale and
+	      MIME character sete:</para>
 	    <programlisting><replaceable>language_name</replaceable>|<replaceable>Account Type Description</replaceable>:\
-	    <para>The previous Latin-1 example would look like
+	    <para>So, the previous Latin-1 example would look like
 	    <programlisting>german|German Users Accounts:\
@@ -280,73 +273,61 @@ me:\
+	    <para>See &man.login.conf.5; for more
+	      details about these variables.</para>
 	    <para>Whenever <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> is edited, remember to execute the following
 	      command to update the capability database:</para>
 	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</userinput></screen>
-	    <title>Changing Login Classes with
-	      &man.vipw.8;</title>
+	    <title>Utilities Which Change Login Classes</title>
+	    <para>In addition to manually editing
+	      <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, several utilities
+	      are available for setting the locale for newly created
+	      users.</para>
 	    <para>When using <command>vipw</command> to add new users,
-	      use <replaceable>language</replaceable> to set the
-	      language:</para>
+	      specify the <replaceable>language</replaceable> to set the
+	      locale:</para>
 	    <programlisting>user:password:1111:11:<replaceable>language</replaceable>:0:0:User Name:/home/user:/bin/sh</programlisting>
-	  </sect4>
-	  <sect4>
-	    <title>Changing Login Classes with
-	      &man.adduser.8;</title>
 	    <indexterm><primary>login class</primary></indexterm>
 	    <para>When using <command>adduser</command> to add new
-	      users, configure the language as follows:</para>
+	      users, the default language can be pre-configured for
+	      all new users or specified for an individual user.</para>
-	    <itemizedlist>
-	      <listitem>
 		<para>If all new users use the same language, set
 		  <literal>defaultclass =
 		    language</literal> in
-	      </listitem>
-	      <listitem>
-		<para>Alternatively, input the specified language at
-		  this prompt:
+		<para>To override this setting when creating a
+		  user, either input the required locale at
+		  this prompt:</para>
 		  <screen><prompt>Enter login class: default []:</prompt></screen>
-		  when creating a new user using
-		  &man.adduser.8;.</para>
-	      </listitem>
-	      <listitem>
-		<para>Another alternative is to use the following
-		  when creating a user that uses a different language
-		  than the one set in
-		  <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>:</para>
+		<para>or specify the locale to set when invoking
+		  <command>adduser</command>:</para>
 		<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>adduser -class language</userinput></screen>
-	      </listitem>
-	    </itemizedlist>
-	  </sect4>
-	  <sect4>
-	    <title>Changing Login Classes with
-	      &;</title>
-	    <para>If &; is used to add new users, call
-	      it in this form:</para>
+	    <para>If <command>pw</command> is used to add new users, specify the
+	      locale as follows:</para>
 	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw useradd user_name -L language</userinput></screen>
@@ -355,39 +336,33 @@ me:\
 	<sect3 xml:id="startup-file">
 	  <title>Shell Startup File Method</title>
-	  <note>
-	    <para>This method is not recommended because it requires
-	      a different setup for each shell.  Use the <link
-		linkend="login-class">Login Class Method</link>
-	      instead.</para>
-	  </note>
-	  <indexterm><primary>MIME</primary></indexterm>
-	  <indexterm><primary>locale</primary></indexterm>
-	  <para>To add the locale name and MIME character set, set
-	    the two environment variables shown below in the
-	    <filename>/etc/profile</filename> or
-	    <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename> shell startup files.
-	    This example sets the German language:</para>
-	  <para>In <filename>/etc/profile</filename>:</para>
+	    <para>This method is not recommended as each shell that is used requires
+	      manual configuration, where each shell has a different configuration file
+	      and differing syntax.  As an example, to set the German
+	      language for the <command>sh</command> shell, these
+	      lines could be added to <filename>~/.profile</filename> to set the shell for that user only.
+	      Thse lines could also be added to <filename>/etc/profile</filename> or
+	      <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.profile</filename> to set that shell for all users:</para>
 	  <programlisting><envar>LANG=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export LANG</envar>
 <envar>MM_CHARSET=ISO-8859-1; export MM_CHARSET</envar></programlisting>
-	  <para>Or in <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>:</para>
+	<para>However, the name of the configuration file and the 
+	  syntax used differs for the
+	  <command>csh</command> shell.  These are the equivalent
+	  settings for <filename>~/.csh.login</filename>,
+	  <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>, or
+	  <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.login</filename>:</para>
 	  <programlisting><envar>setenv LANG de_DE.ISO8859-1</envar>
 <envar>setenv MM_CHARSET ISO-8859-1</envar></programlisting>
-	  <para>Alternatively, add the above settings to
-	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.profile</filename> or
-	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.login</filename>.</para>
-	  <para>To configure <application>Xorg</application>, add
-	    <emphasis>one</emphasis> of the following to
-	    <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>, depending upon the
-	    shell:</para>
+	  <para>To complicate matters, the syntax needed to configure
+	    <application>Xorg</application> in
+	    <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> also depends upon the
+	    shell.  The first example is for the <command>sh</command>
+	    shell and the second is for the <command>csh</command>
+	    shell.</para>
 	  <programlisting><envar>LANG=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export LANG</envar></programlisting>

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