svn commit: r42018 - head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks

Warren Block wblock at FreeBSD.org
Mon Jun 24 01:00:56 UTC 2013


Author: wblock
Date: Mon Jun 24 01:00:56 2013
New Revision: 42018
URL: http://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/doc/42018

Log:
  Suppress some ugly memories in the Storage chapter:
  * Remove "RAID" section that only covers ccd(4) and ataraid(4).  These
    may still work, but there are better solutions for new users.
  * Remove Backups to Floppies section.
  * Add SATA drive names.
  * Change CDROM to CD-ROM to match the FDP Primer word list.
  
  About ccd(4):
  
  Once new and useful, thrice ousted from its niche, time's arrow
  evicts ccd from the Handbook, to live forever in the archives.

Modified:
  head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml

Modified: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml
==============================================================================
--- head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml	Mon Jun 24 00:46:26 2013	(r42017)
+++ head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml	Mon Jun 24 01:00:56 2013	(r42018)
@@ -52,19 +52,11 @@
       </listitem>
 
       <listitem>
-	<para>The various storage media options for backups.</para>
-      </listitem>
-
-      <listitem>
 	<para>How to use the backup programs available under
 	  &os;.</para>
       </listitem>
 
       <listitem>
-	<para>How to backup to floppy disks.</para>
-      </listitem>
-
-      <listitem>
 	<para>What file system snapshots are and how to use them
 	  efficiently.</para>
       </listitem>
@@ -84,7 +76,7 @@
     <title>Device Names</title>
 
     <para>The following is a list of physical storage devices
-      supported in &os;, and their associated device names.</para>
+      supported in &os; and their associated device names.</para>
 
     <table id="disk-naming-physical-table" frame="none">
       <title>Physical Disk Naming Conventions</title>
@@ -100,27 +92,40 @@
 	<tbody>
 	  <row>
 	    <entry>IDE hard drives</entry>
-	    <entry><literal>ad</literal></entry>
+	    <entry><literal>ad</literal> or
+	      <literal>ada</literal></entry>
 	  </row>
 
 	  <row>
-	    <entry>IDE CDROM drives</entry>
-	    <entry><literal>acd</literal></entry>
+	    <entry>IDE CD-ROM drives</entry>
+	    <entry><literal>acd</literal> or
+	      <literal>cd</literal></entry>
 	  </row>
 
 	  <row>
+	    <entry>SATA hard drives</entry>
+	    <entry><literal>ad</literal> or
+	      <literal>ada</literal></entry>
+	  </row>
+
+	  <row>
+	    <entry>SATA CD-ROM drives</entry>
+	    <entry><literal>acd</literal> or
+	      <literal>cd</literal></entry>
+	  </row>
+	  <row>
 	    <entry>SCSI hard drives and USB Mass storage
 	      devices</entry>
 	    <entry><literal>da</literal></entry>
 	  </row>
 
 	  <row>
-	    <entry>SCSI CDROM drives</entry>
+	    <entry>SCSI CD-ROM drives</entry>
 	    <entry><literal>cd</literal></entry>
 	  </row>
 
 	  <row>
-	    <entry>Assorted non-standard CDROM drives</entry>
+	    <entry>Assorted non-standard CD-ROM drives</entry>
 	    <entry><literal>mcd</literal> for Mitsumi CD-ROM and
 	      <literal>scd</literal> for Sony CD-ROM devices</entry>
 	  </row>
@@ -242,362 +247,6 @@
     <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /newdisk</userinput></screen>
   </sect1>
 
-  <sect1 id="raid">
-    <title>RAID</title>
-
-    <sect2 id="raid-soft">
-      <title>Software RAID</title>
-
-      <sect3 id="ccd">
-	<sect3info>
-	  <authorgroup>
-	    <author>
-	      <firstname>Christopher</firstname>
-	      <surname>Shumway</surname>
-	      <contrib>Original work by </contrib>
-	    </author>
-	  </authorgroup>
-
-	  <authorgroup>
-	    <author>
-	      <firstname>Jim</firstname>
-	      <surname>Brown</surname>
-	      <contrib>Revised by </contrib>
-	    </author>
-	  </authorgroup>
-	</sect3info>
-
-	<title>Concatenated Disk Driver (CCD) Configuration</title>
-
-	<indexterm><primary>RAID</primary><secondary>software</secondary></indexterm>
-	<indexterm><primary>RAID</primary><secondary>CCD</secondary></indexterm>
-
-	<para>When choosing a mass storage solution, the most
-	  important factors to consider are speed, reliability, and
-	  cost.  It is rare to have all three in balance.  Normally a
-	  fast, reliable mass storage device is expensive, and to cut
-	  back on cost either speed or reliability must be
-	  sacrificed.</para>
-
-	<para>In designing the system described below, cost was
-	  chosen as the most important factor, followed by speed,
-	  then reliability.  Data transfer speed for this system is
-	  ultimately constrained by the network.  While reliability is
-	  very important, the CCD drive described below serves online
-	  data that is already fully backed up and which can easily be
-	  replaced.</para>
-
-	<para>Defining the requirements is the first step in choosing
-	  a mass storage solution.  If the requirements prefer speed
-	  or reliability over cost, the solution will differ from the
-	  system described in this section.</para>
-
-	<sect4 id="ccd-installhw">
-	  <title>Installing the Hardware</title>
-
-	  <para>In addition to the IDE system disk, three Western
-	    Digital 30GB, 5400 RPM IDE disks form the core of the CCD
-	    disk described below, providing approximately 90GB of
-	    online storage.  Ideally, each IDE disk would have its own
-	    IDE controller and cable, but to minimize cost, additional
-	    IDE controllers were not used.  Instead, the disks were
-	    configured with jumpers so that each IDE controller has
-	    one master, and one slave.</para>
-
-	  <para>Upon reboot, the system BIOS was configured to
-	    automatically detect the disks attached.  More
-	    importantly, &os; detected them on reboot:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>ad0: 19574MB <WDC WD205BA> [39770/16/63] at ata0-master UDMA33
-ad1: 29333MB <WDC WD307AA> [59598/16/63] at ata0-slave UDMA33
-ad2: 29333MB <WDC WD307AA> [59598/16/63] at ata1-master UDMA33
-ad3: 29333MB <WDC WD307AA> [59598/16/63] at ata1-slave UDMA33</programlisting>
-
-	  <note><para>If &os; does not detect all the disks, consult
-	    the drive documentation for proper setup and verify
-	    that the controller is supported by &os;.</para></note>
-	</sect4>
-
-	<sect4 id="ccd-setup">
-	  <title>Setting Up the CCD</title>
-
-	  <para>The &man.ccd.4; driver takes several identical disks
-	    and concatenates them into one logical file system.  In
-	    order to use &man.ccd.4;, its kernel module must be
-	    loaded using &man.ccd.4;.  When using a custom kernel,
-	    ensure that this line is compiled in:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>device   ccd</programlisting>
-
-	  <para>Before configuring &man.ccd.4;, use &man.bsdlabel.8;
-	    to label the disks:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>bsdlabel -w ad1 auto
-bsdlabel -w ad2 auto
-bsdlabel -w ad3 auto</programlisting>
-
-	  <para>This example creates a bsdlabel for
-	    <devicename>ad1c</devicename>,
-	    <devicename>ad2c</devicename> and
-	    <devicename>ad3c</devicename> that spans the entire
-	    disk.</para>
-
-	  <para>The next step is to change the disk label type.  Use
-	    &man.bsdlabel.8; to edit the disks:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>bsdlabel -e ad1
-bsdlabel -e ad2
-bsdlabel -e ad3</programlisting>
-
-	  <para>This opens up the current disk label on each disk with
-	    the editor specified by the <envar>EDITOR</envar>
-	    environment variable, typically &man.vi.1;.</para>
-
-	  <para>An unmodified disk label will look something like
-	    this:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>8 partitions:
-#        size   offset    fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
-  c: 60074784        0    unused        0     0     0   # (Cyl.    0 - 59597)</programlisting>
-
-	  <para>Add a new <literal>e</literal> partition for
-	    &man.ccd.4; to use.  This can usually be copied from the
-	    <literal>c</literal> partition, but the
-	    <option>fstype</option> <emphasis>must</emphasis> be
-	    <userinput>4.2BSD</userinput>.  The disk label should now
-	    look something like this:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>8 partitions:
-#        size   offset    fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
-  c: 60074784        0    unused        0     0     0   # (Cyl.    0 - 59597)
-  e: 60074784        0    4.2BSD        0     0     0   # (Cyl.    0 - 59597)</programlisting>
-	</sect4>
-
-	<sect4 id="ccd-buildingfs">
-	  <title>Building the File System</title>
-
-	  <para>Now that all the disks are labeled, build the
-	    &man.ccd.4; using &man.ccdconfig.8;, with options similar
-	    to the following:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>ccdconfig ccd0<co id="co-ccd-dev"/> 32<co id="co-ccd-interleave"/> 0<co id="co-ccd-flags"/> /dev/ad1e<co id="co-ccd-devs"/> /dev/ad2e /dev/ad3e</programlisting>
-
-	  <para>The use and meaning of each option is described
-	    below:</para>
-
-	  <calloutlist>
-	    <callout arearefs="co-ccd-dev">
-	      <para>The first argument is the device to configure, in
-		this case, <filename>/dev/ccd0c</filename>.  The
-		<literal>/dev/</literal> portion is optional.</para>
-	    </callout>
-
-	    <callout arearefs="co-ccd-interleave">
-	      <para>The interleave for the file system, which defines
-		the size of a stripe in disk blocks, each normally 512
-		bytes.  So, an interleave of 32 would be 16,384
-		bytes.</para>
-	    </callout>
-
-	    <callout arearefs="co-ccd-flags">
-	      <para>Flags for &man.ccdconfig.8;.  For example, to
-		enable drive mirroring, specify a flag.  This
-		configuration does not provide mirroring for
-		&man.ccd.4;, so it is set at 0 (zero).</para>
-	    </callout>
-
-	    <callout arearefs="co-ccd-devs">
-	      <para>The final arguments to &man.ccdconfig.8; are the
-		devices to place into the array.  Use the complete
-		path name for each device.</para>
-	    </callout>
-	  </calloutlist>
-
-	  <para>After running &man.ccdconfig.8; the &man.ccd.4; is
-	    configured and a file system can be installed.  Refer to
-	    &man.newfs.8; for options, or run: </para>
-
-	  <programlisting>newfs /dev/ccd0c</programlisting>
-	</sect4>
-
-	<sect4 id="ccd-auto">
-	  <title>Making it All Automatic</title>
-
-	  <para>Generally, &man.ccd.4; should be configured to
-	    automount upon each reboot.  To do this, write out the
-	    current configuration to
-	    <filename>/etc/ccd.conf</filename> using the following
-	    command:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>ccdconfig -g > /etc/ccd.conf</programlisting>
-
-	  <para>During reboot, the script <command>/etc/rc</command>
-	    runs <command>ccdconfig -C</command> if
-	    <filename>/etc/ccd.conf</filename> exists.  This
-	    automatically configures the &man.ccd.4; so it can be
-	    mounted.</para>
-
-	  <note>
-	    <para>When booting into single user mode, the following
-	      command must be issued to configure the array before
-	      the &man.ccd.4; can be mounted:</para>
-
-	    <programlisting>ccdconfig -C</programlisting>
-	  </note>
-
-	  <para>To automatically mount the &man.ccd.4;, place an entry
-	    for the &man.ccd.4; in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> so
-	    it will be mounted at boot time:</para>
-
-	  <programlisting>/dev/ccd0c              /media       ufs     rw      2       2</programlisting>
-	</sect4>
-      </sect3>
-
-      <sect3 id="vinum">
-	<title>The Vinum Volume Manager</title>
-
-	<indexterm>
-	  <primary>RAID</primary>
-	  <secondary>software</secondary>
-	</indexterm>
-	<indexterm>
-	  <primary>RAID</primary>
-	  <secondary>Vinum</secondary>
-	</indexterm>
-
-	<para>The Vinum Volume Manager is a block device driver which
-	  implements virtual disk drives.  It isolates disk hardware
-	  from the block device interface and maps data in ways which
-	  result in an increase in flexibility, performance and
-	  reliability compared to the traditional slice view of disk
-	  storage.  &man.vinum.4; implements the RAID-0, RAID-1 and
-	  RAID-5 models, both individually and in combination.</para>
-
-	<para>Refer to <xref linkend="vinum-vinum"/> for more
-	  information about &man.vinum.4;.</para>
-      </sect3>
-    </sect2>
-
-    <sect2 id="raid-hard">
-      <title>Hardware RAID</title>
-
-      <indexterm>
-	<primary>RAID</primary>
-	<secondary>hardware</secondary>
-      </indexterm>
-
-      <para>&os; also supports a variety of hardware
-	<acronym>RAID</acronym> controllers.  These devices control a
-	<acronym>RAID</acronym> subsystem without the need for &os;
-	specific software to manage the array.</para>
-
-      <para>Using an on-card <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, the card
-	controls most of the disk operations.  The following is a
-	brief setup description using a Promise
-	<acronym>IDE</acronym> <acronym>RAID</acronym> controller.
-	When this card is installed and the system is started up, it
-	displays a prompt requesting information.  Follow the
-	instructions to enter the card's setup screen and to combine
-	all the attached drives.  After doing so, the disks will
-	look like a single drive to &os;.  Other
-	<acronym>RAID</acronym> levels can be set up
-	accordingly.</para>
-    </sect2>
-
-    <sect2>
-      <title>Rebuilding ATA RAID1 Arrays</title>
-
-      <para>&os; supports the ability to hot-replace a failed disk in
-	an array.</para>
-
-      <para>An error indicating a failed disk will appear in
-	<filename>/var/log/messages</filename> or in the &man.dmesg.8;
-	output:</para>
-
-      <programlisting>ad6 on monster1 suffered a hard error.
-ad6: READ command timeout tag=0 serv=0 - resetting
-ad6: trying fallback to PIO mode
-ata3: resetting devices .. done
-ad6: hard error reading fsbn 1116119 of 0-7 (ad6 bn 1116119; cn 1107 tn 4 sn 11)\\
-status=59 error=40
-ar0: WARNING - mirror lost</programlisting>
-
-      <para>Use &man.atacontrol.8; to check for further
-	information:</para>
-
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol list</userinput>
-ATA channel 0:
-	Master:      no device present
-	Slave:   acd0 <HL-DT-ST CD-ROM GCR-8520B/1.00> ATA/ATAPI rev 0
-
-ATA channel 1:
-	Master:      no device present
-	Slave:       no device present
-
-ATA channel 2:
-	Master:  ad4 <MAXTOR 6L080J4/A93.0500> ATA/ATAPI rev 5
-	Slave:       no device present
-
-ATA channel 3:
-	Master:  ad6 <MAXTOR 6L080J4/A93.0500> ATA/ATAPI rev 5
-	Slave:       no device present
-
-&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol status ar0</userinput>
-ar0: ATA RAID1 subdisks: ad4 ad6 status: DEGRADED</screen>
-
-      <procedure>
-	<step>
-	  <para>First, detach the ata channel with the failed disk
-	    so that it can be safely removed:</para>
-
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol detach ata3</userinput></screen>
-	</step>
-
-	<step>
-	  <para>Replace the disk.</para>
-	</step>
-
-	<step>
-	  <para>Reattach the ata channel:</para>
-
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol attach ata3</userinput>
-Master:  ad6 <MAXTOR 6L080J4/A93.0500> ATA/ATAPI rev 5
-Slave:   no device present</screen>
-	</step>
-
-	<step>
-	  <para>Add the new disk to the array as a spare:</para>
-
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol addspare ar0 ad6</userinput></screen>
-	</step>
-
-	<step>
-	  <para>Rebuild the array:</para>
-
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol rebuild ar0</userinput></screen>
-	</step>
-
-	<step>
-	  <para>It is possible to check on the progress by issuing the
-	    following command:</para>
-
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dmesg | tail -10</userinput>
-[output removed]
-ad6: removed from configuration
-ad6: deleted from ar0 disk1
-ad6: inserted into ar0 disk1 as spare
-
-&prompt.root; <userinput>atacontrol status ar0</userinput>
-ar0: ATA RAID1 subdisks: ad4 ad6 status: REBUILDING 0% completed</screen>
-	</step>
-
-	<step>
-	  <para>Wait until this operation completes.</para>
-	</step>
-      </procedure>
-    </sect2>
-  </sect1>
-
   <sect1 id="usb-disks">
     <sect1info>
       <authorgroup>
@@ -794,7 +443,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
     <title>Creating and Using CD Media</title>
 
     <indexterm>
-      <primary>CDROMs</primary>
+      <primary>CD-ROMs</primary>
       <secondary>creating</secondary>
     </indexterm>
 
@@ -912,7 +561,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
 	of ways.</para>
 
       <indexterm>
-	<primary>CDROMs</primary>
+	<primary>CD-ROMs</primary>
 	<secondary>creating bootable</secondary>
       </indexterm>
       <para>The last option of general use is <option>-b</option>.
@@ -955,7 +604,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
       <title><application>burncd</application></title>
 
       <indexterm>
-	<primary>CDROMs</primary>
+	<primary>CD-ROMs</primary>
 	<secondary>burning</secondary>
       </indexterm>
       <para>For an ATAPI CD burner, <command>burncd</command> can be
@@ -1001,7 +650,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
 	results like this:</para>
 
       <indexterm>
-	<primary>CDROMs</primary>
+	<primary>CD-ROMs</primary>
 	<secondary>burning</secondary>
       </indexterm>
       <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdrecord -scanbus</userinput>
@@ -1122,8 +771,8 @@ scsibus1:
       <para>It is possible to copy a data CD to an image file that is
 	functionally equivalent to the image file created with
 	&man.mkisofs.8;, and then use it to duplicate any data CD.
-	The example given here assumes that the CDROM device is
-	<devicename>acd0</devicename>.  Substitute the correct CDROM
+	The example given here assumes that the CD-ROM device is
+	<devicename>acd0</devicename>.  Substitute the correct CD-ROM
 	device.</para>
 
       <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/acd0 of=file.iso bs=2048</userinput></screen>
@@ -1149,7 +798,7 @@ scsibus1:
 	  &man.mount.8; that the file system is of type
 	  <literal>ISO9660</literal> by specifying
 	  <option>-t cd9660</option> to &man.mount.8;.  For example,
-	  to mount the CDROM device, <filename>/dev/cd0</filename>,
+	  to mount the CD-ROM device, <filename>/dev/cd0</filename>,
 	  under <filename class="directory">/mnt</filename>,
 	  use:</para>
 
@@ -1162,7 +811,7 @@ scsibus1:
 
       <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0 /mnt</userinput></screen>
 
-      <para>While data CDROMs from any vendor can be mounted this way,
+      <para>While data CD-ROMs from any vendor can be mounted this way,
 	disks with certain ISO 9660 extensions might behave oddly.
 	For example, Joliet disks store all filenames in two-byte
 	Unicode characters.  The &os; kernel does not speak Unicode,
@@ -1186,13 +835,13 @@ scsibus1:
       </note>
 
       <para>Occasionally, <errorname>Device not configured</errorname>
-	will be displayed when trying to mount a CDROM.  This
-	usually means that the CDROM drive thinks that there is no
+	will be displayed when trying to mount a CD-ROM.  This
+	usually means that the CD-ROM drive thinks that there is no
 	disk in the tray, or that the drive is not visible on the bus.
-	It can take a couple of seconds for a CDROM drive to realize
+	It can take a couple of seconds for a CD-ROM drive to realize
 	that a media is present, so be patient.</para>
 
-      <para>Sometimes, a SCSI CDROM may be missed because it did not
+      <para>Sometimes, a SCSI CD-ROM may be missed because it did not
 	have enough time to answer the bus reset.  To resolve this,add
 	the following option to the kernel configuration and <link
 	  linkend="kernelconfig-building">rebuild the
@@ -1201,7 +850,7 @@ scsibus1:
       <programlisting>options SCSI_DELAY=15000</programlisting>
 
       <para>This tells the SCSI bus to pause 15 seconds during boot,
-	to give the CDROM drive every possible chance to answer the
+	to give the CD-ROM drive every possible chance to answer the
 	bus reset.</para>
     </sect2>
 
@@ -1220,7 +869,7 @@ scsibus1:
 
       <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar xzvf /dev/acd1</userinput></screen>
 
-      <para>This type of disk can not be mounted as a normal CDROM and
+      <para>This type of disk can not be mounted as a normal CD-ROM and
 	the data cannot be read under any operating system except
 	&os;.  In order to mount the CD, or to share the data with
 	another operating system, &man.mkisofs.8; must be used as
@@ -1968,105 +1617,6 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed
     </sect2>
   </sect1>
 
-  <sect1 id="backups-floppybackups">
-    <title>Backups to Floppies</title>
-
-    <sect2 id="floppies-using">
-      <title>Can I Use Floppies for Backing Up My Data?</title>
-
-      <indexterm><primary>backup floppies</primary></indexterm>
-      <indexterm><primary>floppy disks</primary></indexterm>
-
-      <para>Floppy disks are not a suitable media for making backups
-	as:</para>
-
-      <itemizedlist>
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>The media is unreliable, especially over long periods
-	    of time.</para>
-	</listitem>
-
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>Backing up and restoring is very slow.</para>
-	</listitem>
-
-	<listitem>
-	  <para>They have a very limited capacity.</para>
-	</listitem>
-      </itemizedlist>
-
-      <para>However, if no other method of backing up data is
-	available, floppy disks are better than no backup at
-	all.</para>
-
-      <para>When backing up to floppy disks, ensure the floppies are
-	of good quality.  Floppies that have been lying around the
-	office for a couple of years are a bad choice.  Ideally,
-	use new ones from a reputable manufacturer.</para>
-    </sect2>
-
-    <sect2 id="floppies-creating">
-      <title>So How Do I Backup My Data to Floppies?</title>
-
-      <para>The best way to backup to floppy disk is to use
-	&man.tar.1; with <option>-M</option> (multi-volume), which
-	allows backups to span multiple floppies.</para>
-
-      <para>To backup all the files in the current directory and
-	sub-directory, use this as <username>root</username>:</para>
-
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar Mcvf /dev/fd0 *</userinput></screen>
-
-      <para>When the first floppy is full, &man.tar.1; will prompt
-	to insert the next volume, which in this case is the next
-	floppy disk:</para>
-
-      <screen>Prepare volume #2 for /dev/fd0 and hit return:</screen>
-
-      <para>This is repeated, with the volume number incrementing,
-	until all the specified files have been archived.</para>
-    </sect2>
-
-    <sect2 id="floppies-compress">
-      <title>Can I Compress My Backups?</title>
-
-      <indexterm>
-	<primary><command>tar</command></primary>
-      </indexterm>
-      <indexterm>
-	<primary><command>gzip</command></primary>
-      </indexterm>
-      <indexterm><primary>compression</primary></indexterm>
-
-      <para>Unfortunately, &man.tar.1; does not support
-	<option>-z</option> for multi-volume archives.  Instead,
-	&man.gzip.1; all the files, &man.tar.1; them to the floppies,
-	then &man.gunzip.1; the files.</para>
-    </sect2>
-
-    <sect2 id="floppies-restoring">
-      <title>How Do I Restore My Backups?</title>
-
-      <para>To restore the entire archive use:</para>
-
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar Mxvf /dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
-
-      <para>There are two methods to restore only specific files.  The
-	first is to insert the first floppy and use:</para>
-
-      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar Mxvf /dev/fd0 <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
-      <para>&man.tar.1; will prompt to insert subsequent floppies
-	until it finds the required file.</para>
-
-      <para>Alternatively, if the floppy containing the file is known,
-	insert that floppy and use the same command.  If the first
-	file on the floppy is a continuation from the previous one,
-	&man.tar.1; will warn that it cannot restore it, even if you
-	have not asked it to.</para>
-    </sect2>
-  </sect1>
-
   <sect1 id="backup-strategies">
     <sect1info>
       <authorgroup>
@@ -2476,7 +2026,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed
 	<note>
 	  <para>Livefs CD images are not available for
 	    &os; &rel.current;-RELEASE and later.  In addition to
-	    the CDROM installation images, flash drive installation
+	    the CD-ROM installation images, flash drive installation
 	    images may be used to recover a system.  The
 	    <quote>memstick</quote> image for
 	    &os;/&arch.i386; &rel.current;-RELEASE is available
@@ -2517,10 +2067,10 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed
 	  <quote>livefs</quote> CD and boot the computer.  The
 	  original install menu will be displayed on the screen.
 	  Select the correct country, then choose
-	  <guimenuitem>Fixit -- Repair mode with CDROM/DVD/floppy or
+	  <guimenuitem>Fixit -- Repair mode with CD-ROM/DVD/floppy or
 	  start a shell.</guimenuitem> then select
-	  <guimenuitem>CDROM/DVD -- Use the live filesystem
-	  CDROM/DVD</guimenuitem>.
+	  <guimenuitem>CD-ROM/DVD -- Use the live filesystem
+	  CD-ROM/DVD</guimenuitem>.
 	  <command>restore</command> and the other needed programs
 	  are located in <filename
 	    class="directory">/mnt2/rescue</filename>.</para>


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