Cary cary at
Thu Mar 2 21:09:39 UTC 2017

Baho Utot wrote:
> Where does FreeBSD look for firmware when it is required for a device to
> function.  I have /boot/firmware but there is nothing stored there.
> I have a USB wireless device using:
> Realtek RTL8188CU/RTL8188RU/RTL8188EU/RTL8192CU USB IEEE
>      802.11b/g/n wireless network device
> and a BCM4311.
> The Realtek works the broadcom does not.  The broadcom bwn kmod cannot find the
> firmware and I have been unable to figure out what directory it should be in.
> Thanks
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Hello Baho U.,

Firmware is normally installed in /boot/modules.

$ grep -e "^KMODDIR=" /usr/ports/Mk/Uses/
KMODDIR=        /boot/modules

$ pkg info -g -l bw\[in\]\*

Those were the last versions of the driver installed to my symstem. years ago.

To build a driver for bcm43XX ndisgen(8) is worth a try. If you have not seen it
before, here is a post that gives a quick summary.

cary at
SDF Public Access UNIX System -


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