Leaning FreeBSD

Polytropon freebsd at edvax.de
Fri Sep 30 08:32:44 UTC 2016

On Fri, 30 Sep 2016 01:53:55 -0400, Allen wrote:
> On Fri, 23 Sep 2016 13:39:22 -0700
> "Jason C. Wells" <jasoncwells at fastmail.com> wrote:
> > You need networking up and your DNS servers in /etc/resolv.conf.
> > 
> > Try 'ping pkg.freebsd.org'. If that doesn't work, then fetching
> > packages will certainly not work.
> > Also, it appears that you were not running as root. You need to run
> > root to install software.
> > 
> > Regards,
> > Jason C. Wells
> > 
> > 
> > On 9/23/2016 1:34 PM, Doug wrote:
> > > in “y”, press enter key and that returns:
> > > Bootstrapping pkg
> Sorry for bottom posting [...]

Why "sorry"? It's the preferred method of replying. See:

	Are you sure?
	Because it reverses the logical flow of conversation.
	Why is top posting frowned upon?

So nothing wrong here. ;-)

> [...] but I'm having hardware issues and I wanted to
> pop in for a second; I looked at the OP (Original Post / Poster since
> you're new and may actually have a life ;) ) and I saw something about
> them saying that changing to root said denied, and I'm curious what was
> meant by it.

There are, in general, two ways to perform operations as root:
The first way is the most obvious one: login as root. This may
be a (valid!) problem over SSH, but should work without problems
on a freshly installed system. The second way is to use commands
like "su" (supplied by the OS), or "sudo" and "super" (additional
ports that can be installed). Those tools require certain permissions
to be prepared, like the user being part of the "wheel" group
(for "su"), or the presence of properly edited configuration files.

> Did you have problems changing to root? Or did you get the same error
> AS root?
> if I'm logged in to my regular account, similar to this:
> gore at MyMachineWithSomeInfo>
> Which may not look the same because I personally like Zsh, which is my
> default for almost every account on my machine because I like it (The
> setup tool that runs when you first use it is not only easy to use,
> it's easy to set up, and it has a lot of features, and, in general, I
> use Zsh no matter what OS I'm currently using because it works on Linux
> just as well, and my Slackware and Debian and SuSE and other Linux
> distros I use all have it....

On the default FreeBSD installation, the C shell (csh, actually tcsh)
is the default dialog shell with the user prompt ending in "%", and
the root prompt ending in "#", usually stating the user name as well:

	bob at sysname:~/maybe/some/path% _


	root at sysname:/# _

This approach makes is quite easy to recognize which "level of power"
is currently being granted, even on displays that do not support
color (the usual "red root shell").

> Sorry didn't mean to make an Ad for Zsh
> but I really like that it can do the same stuff as Bash without me
> being forced to give credit to MIT instead of Berkeley lol)

The Z shell is a _very_ comfortable and versatile shell, and some
people even say it's the ultimate shell because it combines the
advantages of all the other shells, without neccessarily incorporating
their bad habits. :-)

> Anyway,
> depending on your Unix based ability, this is what I do:
> gore at ZshAndBSDZealot:> su
> Enter Root Password......Done....
> And Now I'm root, and can do whatever I like. 

This requires that your user name is listed in the group "wheel",
found in /etc/groups. This entry can be added manually by root,
or with the "pw" command (see "man pw" for details).

> When I first started using Non-Windows OSs, one of the things that used
> to piss me off pretty well, was getting used to the idea that the
> hardware companies that had made most of my parts, never thought I'd
> ever actually need REAL Hardware, that doesn't use my CPU. My Modem,
> Sound Card..... All of it wouldn't work unless I was using
> Windows....

Today it's often the opposite: "Your stuff is too old - go and buy
new stuff and we _might_ have a driver for you!" ;-)

> And not just any version, but the Windows 98SE with the
> drivers on the CD version my box came with, and at the time I had Dial
> Up, so until I got a High speed connection using a NIC (Network Card
> for those of you with lives ;) )

"Network _Interface_ Card", said the terminology nutsee. ;-)

> From what I saw in the OP, it looked like they weren't online, so if
> you're trying to learn FreeBSD, first, take a Breath, relax for a
> moment, and check that your hardware is all working as expected, and
> make sure that whatever connection you've got to the net, is working
> under BSD, and if you are online, that's good, but then you just need
> to check that you're root, and that everything is working there.

The usual steps for checking your online connectivity include:

1. "ifconfig -a": Did I get an IP from my router/switch/modem?

2. "ping -c 3": Can I reach something on the Internet?

3: "fetch www.google.com": Does name resolution work?

If all three tests are successful, it's likely that you can now install
things with "pkg install <name>".

> I went with both; I Googled Hardware that worked under more than just
> Windows, and more than just Linux. For me personally, I'm considering a
> Company that specializes in BSD because right now, I don't even use my
> Linux installs anymore, I've been using nothing but FreeBSD for MONTHS.

If you can, a good approach is "first think, then buy", but I know
that this is not always a possible option...

> Anyway, I clearly remember my problems with getting used to OSs I
> hadn't used before, and I saw the post and wanted to try to help, and
> from the OP, there seemed to be a few things that could be the issue.

Yes, it looked like a connection issue at first sight.

> Don't let it bother you though; FreeBSD is one of the ONLY OSs that
> really will do exactly what you tell it to do and nothing more. So
> don't get discouraged and Hopefully you get through the initial
> learning curve without frustration.

As all operating systems, there is a learning curve (and it does
not make sense to deny this fact); however, what you _gain_ from
mastering those first steps is really incredible. Unlike certain
other systems, the power is yours, you are in control, in charge.
Today, that is a _real_ advantage.

Magdeburg, Germany
Happy FreeBSD user since 4.0
Andra moi ennepe, Mousa, ...

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