async pass(4) patches available
Kenneth D. Merry
ken at FreeBSD.ORG
Mon Mar 30 22:24:08 UTC 2015
I have put patches to add an asynchronous interface to the pass(4) driver
and add a new camdd(8) utility here:
FreeBSD/head as of SVN revision 280857:
FreeBSD stable/10 as of SVN revision 280856:
And the description / draft commit message:
I have also attached the description and draft commit message to this
The asynchronous changes to the pass(4) driver allow queueing and fetching
CAM CCBs via two new ioctls. Notification of completed I/O can come via
kqueue(2), poll(2), select(2), etc.
The camdd(8) utility is intended as a simple data transfer utility,
benchmark, and an in-tree example of how to use the asynchronous pass(4)
camdd(8) is still a work in progress. It needs to be cleaned up a bit and
There is one known arrival and departure bug with the pass(4) driver
changes. We've reproduced it with our tests at Spectra, but I haven't yet
tracked it down.
There are many more arrival and departure bugs in FreeBSD/head, however.
We have fixed quite a few in our local tree, but the test (called devad2)
that triggers all of the problems uses the asynchronous pass(4) interface.
So this is a prerequisite for fixing/verifying those bugs.
Comments and testing are welcome! As I said, camdd(8) in particular is a
work in progress. It could use some cleanup and there are some more useful
features that could be added there.
Part of the reason for camdd(8) was as a test facility for the new
interface. But, it also serves as a useful demonstration of the
asynchronous pass(4) functionality, given that the original application
that used the API doesn't make sense to go into FreeBSD. (It is
Spectra-specific, and not generally useful.)
ken at FreeBSD.ORG
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Add asynchronous command support to the pass(4) driver, and the new
CCBs may be queued to the driver via the new CAMIOQUEUE ioctl, and
completed CCBs may be retrieved via the CAMIOGET ioctl. User
processes can use poll(2) or kevent(2) to get notification when
I/O has completed.
While the existing CAMIOCOMMAND blocking ioctl interface only
supports user virtual data pointers in a CCB (generally only
one per CCB), the new CAMIOQUEUE ioctl supports user virtual and
physical address pointers, as well as user virtual and physical
scatter/gather lists. This allows user applications to have more
flexibility in their data handling operations.
Kernel memory for data transferred via the queued interface is
allocated from the zone allocator in MAXPHYS sized chunks, and user
data is copied in and out. This is likely faster than the
vmapbuf()/vunmapbuf() method used by the CAMIOCOMMAND ioctl in
configurations with many processors (there are more TLB shootdowns
caused by the mapping/unmapping operation) but may not be as fast
as running with unmapped I/O.
The new memory handling model for user requests also allows
applications to send CCBs with request sizes that are larger than
MAXPHYS. The pass(4) driver now limits queued requests to the I/O
size listed by the SIM driver in the maxio field in the Path
Inquiry (XPT_PATH_INQ) CCB.
There are some things things would be good to add:
1. Come up with a way to do unmapped I/O on multiple buffers.
Currently the unmapped I/O interface operates on a struct bio,
which includes only one address and length. It would be nice
to be able to send an unmapped scatter/gather list down to
busdma. This would allow eliminating the copy we currently do
2. Add an ioctl to list currently outstanding CCBs in the various
3. Add an ioctl to cancel a request, or use the XPT_ABORT CCB to do
4. Test physical address support. Virtual pointers and scatter
gather lists have been tested, but I have not yet tested
physical addresses or scatter/gather lists.
5. Investigate multiple queue support. At the moment there is one
queue of commands per pass(4) device. If multiple processes
open the device, they will submit I/O into the same queue and
get events for the same completions. This is probably the right
model for most applications, but it would be good to make sure
that there is not really a case for multiple queues before
pushing this code upstream.
Also, add a new utility, camdd(8) that uses the asynchronous pass(4)
This utility is intended to be a basic data transfer/copy utility,
a simple benchmark utility, and an example of how to use the
asynchronous pass(4) interface.
It can copy data to and from pass(4) devices using any target queue
depth, starting offset and blocksize for the input and ouptut devices.
It currently only supports SCSI devices, but could be easily extended
to support ATA devices.
It can also copy data to and from regular files, block devices, tape
devices, pipes, stdin, and stdout. It does not support queueing
multiple commands to any of those targets, since it uses the standard
read(2)/write(2)/writev(2)/readv(2) system calls.
The I/O is done by two threads, one for the reader and one for the
writer. The reader thread sends completed read requests to the
writer thread in strictly sequential order, even if they complete
out of order. That could be modified later on for random I/O patterns
or slightly out of order I/O.
camdd(8) uses kqueue(2)/kevent(2) to get I/O compeltion events from
the pass(4) driver and also to send request notifications internally.
For pass(4) devcies, camdd(8) uses a single buffer (CAM_DATA_VADDR)
per CAM CCB on the reading side, and a scatter/gather list
(CAM_DATA_SG) on the writing side. In addition to testing both
interfaces, this makes any potential reblocking of I/O easier. No
data is copied between the reader and the writer, but rather the
reader's buffers are split into multiple I/O requests or combined
into a single I/O request depending on the input and output blocksize.
For the file I/O path, camdd(8) also uses a single buffer (read(2),
write(2), pread(2) or pwrite(2)) on reads, and a scatter/gather list
(readv(2), writev(2), preadv(2), pwritev(2)) on writes.
Things that would be nice to do for camdd(8) eventually:
1. Add support for I/O pattern generation. Patterns like all
zeros, all ones, LBA-based patterns, random patterns, etc. Right
Now you can always use /dev/zero, /dev/random, etc.
2. Add support for a "sink" mode, so we do only reads with no
writes. Right now, you can use /dev/null.
3. Add support for automatic queue depth probing, so that we can
figure out the right queue depth on the input and output side
for maximum throughput. At the moment it defaults to 6.
4. Add support for SATA device passthrough I/O.
5. Add support for random LBAs and/or lengths on the input and
6. Track average per-I/O latency and busy time. The busy time
and latency could also feed in to the automatic queue depth
Define two new ioctls, CAMIOQUEUE and CAMIOGET, that queue
and fetch asynchronous CAM CCBs respectively.
Although these ioctls do not have a declared argument, they
both take a union ccb pointer. If we declare a size here,
the ioctl code in sys/kern/sys_generic.c will malloc and free
a buffer for either the CCB or the CCB pointer (depending on
how it is declared). Since we have to keep a copy of the
CCB (which is fairly large) anyway, having the ioctl malloc
and free a CCB for each call is wasteful.
Add asynchronous CCB support.
Add two new ioctls, CAMIOQUEUE and CAMIOGET.
CAMIOQUEUE adds a CCB to the incoming queue. The CCB is
executed immediately (and moved to the active queue) if it
is an immediate CCB, but otherwise it will be executed
in passstart() when a CCB is available from the transport layer.
When CCBs are completed (because they are immediate or
passdone() if they are queued), they are put on the done
If we get the final close on the device before all pending
I/O is complete, all active I/O is moved to the abandoned
queue and we increment the peripheral reference count so
that the peripheral driver instance doesn't go away before
all pending I/O is done.
The new passcreatezone() function is called on the first
call to the CAMIOQUEUE ioctl on a given device to allocate
the UMA zones for I/O requests and S/G list buffers. This
may be good to move off to a taskqueue at some point.
The new passmemsetup() function allocates memory and
scatter/gather lists to hold the user's data, and copies
in any data that needs to be written. For virtual pointers
(CAM_DATA_VADDR), the kernel buffer is malloced from the
new pass(4) driver malloc bucket. For virtual
scatter/gather lists (CAM_DATA_SG), buffers are allocated
from a new per-pass(9) UMA zone in MAXPHYS-sized chunks.
Physical pointers are passed in unchanged. We have support
for up to 16 scatter/gather segments (for the user and
kernel S/G lists) in the default struct pass_io_req, so
requests with longer S/G lists require an extra kernel malloc.
The new passcopysglist() function copies a user scatter/gather
list to a kernel scatter/gather list. The number of elements
in each list may be different, but (obviously) the amount of data
stored has to be identical.
The new passmemdone() function copies data out for the
CAM_DATA_VADDR and CAM_DATA_SG cases.
The new passiocleanup() function restores data pointers in
user CCBs and frees memory.
Add new functions to support kqueue(2)/kevent(2):
passreadfilt() tells kevent whether or not the done
queue is empty.
passkqfilter() adds a knote to our list.
passreadfiltdetach() removes a knote from our list.
Add a new function, passpoll(), for poll(2)/select(2)
Add devstat(9) support for the queued CCB path.
Add a makefile for camdd(8).
Man page for camdd(8).
The new camdd(8) utility.
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