[TEST/REVIEW] CPU accounting patches
Garance A Drosehn
gad at FreeBSD.org
Fri Jan 27 12:16:03 PST 2006
At 11:58 AM +0100 1/25/06, Poul-Henning Kamp wrote:
>With my definition you would be more likely to see lower numbers
> user 0.20 sys 0.03 real 4.00
>And they would have meaning, they should be pretty much the same
>no matter what speed your CPU runs at any instant in time.
>In theory, it should be possible to compare user/sys numbers
>you collect while running at 75 MHz with the ones you got
>under full steam at 1600 MHz.
>In practice however, things that run on the real time, HZ
>interrupting to run hardclock() for instance, will still make
>comparison of such numbers quite shaky.
>But at least they will not be random as they are now.
Here at RPI we used to have a mainframe, and we used to charge
by the CPU second, so I am familiar with that side of the
question. However, I am not too concerned by it for my own
interests. For one, we don't charge by CPU second any more. For
two, even if we did start charging again, we would just come up
with some other metric, or simply pick a different rate for
The other big usage for timing programs is to compare the
performance of various algorithms. We have always had users who
cared very much about the accuracy and consistency of such
measurements, whether or not we were charging people by the "CPU
second". Based on the above description, the new CPU accounting
patches will make those comparisons more meaningful, since the
values measured will be the same no matter what speed the CPU is
running at. As such, I think it's a good idea, even if we ignore
the performance improvement.
Getting back to the question of charging, I can almost convince
myself that these changes are also a good idea for when those
values are used for charging. When we (RPI) charged for CPU time,
we weren't really charging "for CPU seconds". We were charging
to say "when we are forced to buy a new computer because this
computer is maxed out, then how much of that load (and thus the
expense for the new computer) is the fault of any given user?".
Thus, if we had a computer which could vary it's speed, we don't
really care about "running out of CPU seconds" if the CPU is in
fact running at half-speed. We only incur the cost of a new
machine once we "run out of CPU seconds" when it is running at
Furthermore, if we had a load which was low enough that we
*could* get it all done by running the CPU at half-speed, then
we (as the computer center) would *prefer* to run it at half-
speed. That way, we reduce power and cooling costs. However,
we will create extreme hostility in our users if we save that
money, only to charge them twice as much because they are now
forced to use "twice as many CPU seconds" when we run the CPU
at half-speed. Oddly enough, consistency is also the big issue
when it comes to charging. The user expects to see the exact
same charge every time they run a specific job, and not see
their charges vary by a dramatic amount due issues they have
no control over.
Poul-Henning says the values will "not be as random as they are now".
If someone *is* charging by the CPU second, then they don't want
those values to be "random". People who receive random bills can
get really really hostile, perhaps to the point of bringing in
lawyers. (and I have seen that happen).
So, it seems to me that this change is *always* the behavior that
everyone would prefer. Yes, we have to describe it. And maybe we
should call the value something other than "CPU seconds" to make
that clear, although I don't know what would be a better name. But
I think I have convinced myself that there is no downside to these
...Assuming the changes work, of course!
Garance Alistair Drosehn = gad at gilead.netel.rpi.edu
Senior Systems Programmer or gad at FreeBSD.org
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Troy, NY; USA
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