[Bug 207732] libgcc_s .eh_frame handling messes up interpreting powerpc/powerpc64 frame pointer register use produced by clang 3.8.0

bugzilla-noreply at freebsd.org bugzilla-noreply at freebsd.org
Sun Mar 6 00:59:50 UTC 2016


            Bug ID: 207732
           Summary: libgcc_s .eh_frame handling messes up interpreting
                    powerpc/powerpc64 frame pointer register use produced
                    by clang 3.8.0
           Product: Base System
           Version: 11.0-CURRENT
          Hardware: ppc
                OS: Any
            Status: New
          Severity: Affects Only Me
          Priority: ---
         Component: bin
          Assignee: freebsd-bugs at FreeBSD.org
          Reporter: markmi at dsl-only.net

Because I'm pointing at long standing FreeBSD libgcc_s code that is not limited
to the example TARGET_ARCH's taht I'm using I first review some dwarf CFA

Based on dwarf-2.0.0.pdf (with  my notes added):

        •       The algorithm to compute the CFA changes as you progress
through the prologue and epilogue code. (By definition, the CFA value does not

So as I understand for the "Call Frame Instruction Usage" . . .

        1.      Initialize a register set by reading the initial_instructions
field of the associated CIE. 

The initial CFA value in/for _Unwind_RaiseException is to be established as
initialization before interpreting the first instruction of the
initial_instructions field of the CIE, which is the initial CIE for the
internal exception handling activity.

For that initial CIE (for _Unwind_RaiseException for exception handling): While
not part of the Itanium C++ exception ABI (as I understand) this initialization
of the initial CFA value is based on starting from the value returned by
__builtin_dwarf_cfa(), used in the likes of _Unwind_RaiseException. (For
TARGET_ARCH=powerpc or powerpc64 or possibly others clang 3.8.0 vs.
gcc4.2.1/4.9/5.3/6.0 do not agree about which frame boundary
_builtin_drawf_cfa() returns. So as stands the value may sometimes need
conversion to a standardized-frame-boundary. This is a somewhat separate issue
separately reported.)

Relative to the CFA value: The CIE/FDE instructions for the locations of a
specific routine only change the CFA rule that would reproduce the CFA value.
(Which would allow back calculating the the value in REG from the CFA value for
CFA=OFFSET(REG) contexts: REG=CFA-OFFSET.) Any computation that results in a
changed value while interpreting that routines .ef_frame instructions must be

So finding a CFA for, say, the caller of _Unwind_RaiseException is not via
execution of one of the CIE/FDE "instructions" stored in the .eh_frame
information for _Unwind_RaiseException or for its caller: it is a separate,
additional step based on the information available that may extract some of the
.eh_frame information from the two routines.

        2.      Read and process the FDE’s instruction sequence until a
DW_CFA_advance_loc, DW_CFA_set_loc, or the end of the instruction stream is

        3.      If a DW_CFA_advance_loc or DW_CFA_set_loc instruction was
encountered, then compute a new location value (L2). If L1 >= L2 then process
the instruction and go back to step 2. 

        4.      The end of the instruction stream can be thought of as a 
DW_CFA_set_loc( initial_location + address_range )
instruction. Unless the FDE
is ill-formed, L1 should be less than L2 at this point. 

The rules in the register set now apply to location L1. 

So given that dwarf CFA material. . .

As compiled  by clang 3.8.0 for powerpc (for example): libcxxrt ends up with
(dwarfdump -v -v -F output for __cxa_throw):

<    0><0x00010620:0x00010794><__cxa_throw><fde offset 0x000006c0 length:
0x00000028><eh aug data len 0x0>
       0x00010620: <off cfa=00(r1) > 
       0x00010634: <off cfa=48(r1) > <off r30=-8(cfa) > <off r31=-4(cfa) > <off
r65=04(cfa) > 
       0x00010638: <off cfa=48(r31) > <off r25=-28(cfa) > <off r26=-24(cfa) >
<off r27=-20(cfa) > <off r28=-16(cfa) > <off r29=-12(cfa) > <off r30=-8(cfa) >
<off r31=-4(cfa) > <off r65=04(cfa) > 
fde section offset 1728 0x000006c0 cie offset for fde: 1732 0x000006c4
        0 DW_CFA_advance_loc 20  (5 * 4)
        1 DW_CFA_def_cfa_offset 48
        3 DW_CFA_offset r31 -4  (1 * -4)
        5 DW_CFA_offset r30 -8  (2 * -4)
        7 DW_CFA_offset_extended_sf r65 4  (-1 * -4)
       10 DW_CFA_advance_loc 4  (1 * 4)
       11 DW_CFA_def_cfa_register r31
       13 DW_CFA_offset r25 -28  (7 * -4)
       15 DW_CFA_offset r26 -24  (6 * -4)
       17 DW_CFA_offset r27 -20  (5 * -4)
       19 DW_CFA_offset r28 -16  (4 * -4)
       21 DW_CFA_offset r29 -12  (3 * -4)
       23 DW_CFA_offset r30 -8  (2 * -4)
       25 DW_CFA_nop
       26 DW_CFA_nop

Note the cfa and r31 references in:

0x00010634: <off cfa=48(r1) >  . . . <off r31=-4(cfa) > . . .
0x00010638: <off cfa=48(r31) > . . . <off r31=-4(cfa) > . . .

The use of r31 to define cfa is from (in part) the clang++ 3.8.0 code
generation using r31 as a frame pointer in addition to r1 as the stack pointer.
The matching actual sequence of operations listed above is:

        1 DW_CFA_def_cfa_offset 48
        3 DW_CFA_offset r31 -4  (1 * -4)
. . .
       11 DW_CFA_def_cfa_register r31

The "1 DW_CFA_def_cfa_offset 48" just notes that r1 (the stack pointer) was
decremented by 48 by the prior instruction so 48 needs to be added to the new
r1 value to reference the same _Unwind_Context cfa value as the prior "<off
cfa=00(r1) >" status (from the CIE the FDE references) does.

The "3 DW_CFA_offset r31 -4  (1 * -4)" was generated because (soon old) r31
value was saved at address cfa-4 ("<off r31=-4(cfa) >"). This address to access
what will be the old/saved r31 value is recorded in the _Unwind_Context

The "11 DW_CFA_def_cfa_register r31" was generated because the prior
instruction r31 was updated to be a copy of r1 for use as a frame pointer. Note
that such does not change the _Unwind_Context cfa value. At this stage r1=r31
and 48(r1)=48(r31) and such will hold until either r1 or r31 is changed in the
routine (if either is).

The repeat of "<off r31=-4(cfa) >" on the "0x00010638: <off cfa=48(r31) >" line
indicates that there is no change to where/how to find the pointer to the
old/saved r31 value relative to the CFA value: no new DW_CFA_offset r31
"instruction" for interpretation.

[Note the messy mix of different r31's. gcc 4.2.1 does not (normally?) generate
such TARGET_ARCH=powerpc code but clang++ 3.8.0 normally does generate such a
Frame Pointer and use it in places. Thus clang++ touches an error that g++
4.2.1 and the like normally do not.]

Unfortunately the above is not the interpretation given by the interpreter in

"11 DW_CFA_def_cfa_register r31" instead accesses the old/saved r31 value via
the pointer in _Unwind_Context reg[31] and then applies the offset 48 to that

The result is the wrong cfa value (which should not have changed at all) and
all else based on the cfa value is messed up after that. In essence the reg[31]
value and the offset value used are of mixed vintages/mixed frames: an
arbitrary combination.

Code for a routine that sticks to cfa=OFFSET(r1) for the cfa will not see this
error in the .eh_frame information's interpretation. [r1= powerpc/powerpc64
stack pointer.]

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