misc/160491: [patch] reaper of the dead: remove ancient FAQ entries

Eitan Adler eadler at FreeBSD.org
Mon Sep 5 19:40:01 UTC 2011

>Number:         160491
>Category:       misc
>Synopsis:       [patch] reaper of the dead: remove ancient FAQ entries
>Confidential:   no
>Severity:       non-critical
>Priority:       low
>Responsible:    freebsd-bugs
>State:          open
>Class:          sw-bug
>Submitter-Id:   current-users
>Arrival-Date:   Mon Sep 05 19:40:01 UTC 2011
>Originator:     Eitan Adler
The attached patch is an incomplete mass removal of outdated FAQ questions. I removed whichever questions I knew to be no longer relevant, but left ones I was not 100% certain about about. We need to strip the FAQ to the bare bones and build it back up.

Index: book.sgml
RCS file: /home/ncvs/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.1140
diff -u -r1.1140 book.sgml
--- book.sgml	29 Aug 2011 05:16:37 -0000	1.1140
+++ book.sgml	5 Sep 2011 19:37:12 -0000
@@ -46,7 +46,6 @@
-      &tm-attrib.iomega;
@@ -65,7 +64,7 @@
       <para>This is the FAQ for &os; versions
 	6.<replaceable>X</replaceable>, 7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>
 	and 8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>.  All entries are assumed to be
-	relevant to &os; 6.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and later,
+	relevant to &os; 7.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and later,
 	unless otherwise noted.  If you are interested in helping with
 	this project, send email to the &a.doc;.  The latest version of
 	this document is always available from the <ulink
@@ -84,8 +83,8 @@
     <para>Welcome to the &os;
-      6.<replaceable>X</replaceable>-, 7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>- and
-      8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> FAQ!</para>
+      7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>-, 8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>- and
+      9.<replaceable>X</replaceable> FAQ!</para>
     <para>As is usual with Usenet FAQs, this document aims to cover the
       most frequently asked questions concerning the &os; operating
@@ -1141,107 +1140,6 @@
-      <qandaentry>
-	<question id="floppy-download">
-	  <para>Which file do I download to get &os;?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>You need three floppy images:
-	    <filename>floppies/boot.flp</filename>,
-	    <filename>floppies/kern1.flp</filename>, and
-	    <filename>floppies/kern2.flp</filename>.  These images need
-	    to be copied onto floppies by tools like
-	    <command>fdimage</command> or &man.dd.1;.</para>
-	  <para>If you need to download the distributions yourself (for
-	    a DOS file system install, for instance), below are some
-	    recommendations for distributions to grab:</para>
-	  <itemizedlist>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>base/</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>manpages/</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>compat*/</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>doc/</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>src/ssys.*</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	  </itemizedlist>
-	  <para>Full instructions on this procedure and a little bit
-	    more about installation issues in general can be found in
-	    the <ulink
-	      url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html">Handbook entry on installing &os;</ulink>.
-	    </para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
-	<question id="floppy-image-too-large">
-	  <para>What do I do if the floppy images does not fit on a
-	    single floppy?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>A 3.5&nbsp;inch (1.44&nbsp;MB) floppy can accommodate
-	    1,474,560&nbsp;bytes of data.  The boot image is exactly
-	    1,474,560&nbsp;bytes in size.</para>
-	  <para>Common mistakes when preparing the boot floppy
-	    are:</para>
-	  <itemizedlist>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>Not downloading the floppy image in
-		<emphasis>binary</emphasis> mode when using
-		<acronym>FTP</acronym>.</para>
-	      <para>Some FTP clients default their transfer mode to
-		<emphasis>ascii</emphasis> and attempt to change any
-		end-of-line characters received to match the conventions
-		used by the client's system.  This will almost
-		invariably corrupt the boot image.  Check the size of
-		the downloaded boot image: if it is not
-		<emphasis>exactly</emphasis> that on the server, then
-		the download process is suspect.</para>
-	      <para>To workaround: type <emphasis>binary</emphasis> at
-		the FTP command prompt after getting connected to the
-		server and before starting the download of the
-		image.</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>Using the DOS <command>copy</command> command (or
-		equivalent GUI tool) to transfer the boot image to
-		floppy.</para>
-	      <para>Programs like <command>copy</command> will not work
-		as the boot image has been created to be booted into
-		directly.  The image has the complete content of the
-		floppy, track for track, and is not meant to be placed
-		on the floppy as a regular file.  You have to transfer
-		it to the floppy <quote>raw</quote>, using the low-level
-		tools (e.g. <command>fdimage</command> or
-		<command>rawrite</command>) described in the <ulink
-		  url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html">installation guide to &os;</ulink>.
-		</para>
-	    </listitem>
-	  </itemizedlist>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
 	<question id="install-instructions-location">
@@ -1585,15 +1483,6 @@
 		at least once!)</para>
-	    <listitem>
-	      <para>If you are using &windows;&nbsp;95 or
-		&windows;&nbsp;98 did you run <command>fdimage</command>
-		or <command>rawrite</command> in pure DOS mode?  These
-		operating systems can interfere with programs that write
-		directly to hardware, which the disk creation program
-		does; even running it inside a DOS shell in the GUI can
-		cause this problem.</para>
-	    </listitem>
 	  <para>There have also been reports of &netscape; causing
@@ -1829,27 +1718,6 @@
-	<question id="need-kernel">
-	  <para>Do I need to build a kernel?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>Building a new kernel was originally pretty much a
-	    required step in a &os; installation, but more recent releases
-	    have benefited from the introduction of much friendlier
-	    kernel configuration methods.  It is very easy to configure
-	    the kernel's configuration by much more flexible
-	    <quote>hints</quote> which can be set at the loader
-	    prompt.</para>
-	  <para>It may still be worthwhile building a new kernel
-	    containing just the drivers that you need, just to save a
-	    bit of RAM, but it is no longer necessary for most
-	    systems.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="password-encryption">
 	  <para>Should I use DES, Blowfish, or MD5 passwords and how do
 	    I specify which form my users receive?</para>
@@ -1876,21 +1744,6 @@
-	<question id="boot-floppy-hangs">
-	  <para>Why does the boot floppy start, but hang at the
-	    <literal>Probing Devices...</literal> screen?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>If you have a IDE &iomegazip; or &jaz; drive installed,
-	    remove it and try again.  The boot floppy can get confused by
-	    the drives.  After the system is installed you can reconnect
-	    the drive.  Hopefully this will be fixed in a later
-	    release.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="panic-on-install-reboot">
 	  <para>Why do I get a <errorname>panic: can't mount
 	    root</errorname> error when rebooting the system after
@@ -3228,82 +3081,6 @@
-	<question id="reallybigram">
-	  <para>Why does &os; only use 64&nbsp;MB of RAM when my system
-	    has 128&nbsp;MB of RAM installed?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>Due to the manner in which &os; gets the memory size
-	    from the BIOS, it can only detect 16&nbsp;bits worth of
-	    Kbytes in size (65535&nbsp;Kbytes = 64&nbsp;MB) (or less...
-	    some BIOSes peg the memory size to 16&nbsp;MB).  If you have
-	    more than 64&nbsp;MB, &os; will attempt to detect it;
-	    however, the attempt may fail.</para>
-	  <para>To work around this problem, you need to use the kernel
-	    option specified below.  There is a way to get complete
-	    memory information from the BIOS, but we do not have room in
-	    the bootblocks to do it.  Someday when lack of room in the
-	    bootblocks is fixed, we will use the extended BIOS functions
-	    to get the full memory information... but for now we are
-	    stuck with the kernel option.</para>
-	  <programlisting>options MAXMEM=<replaceable>n</replaceable></programlisting>
-	  <para>Where <replaceable>n</replaceable> is your memory in
-	    Kilobytes.  For a 128&nbsp;MB machine, you would want to use
-	    <literal>131072</literal>.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
-	<question id="kmem-map-too-small">
-	  <para>My system has more than 1&nbsp;GB of RAM, and I'm
-	    getting panics with <errorname>kmem_map too small</errorname>
-	    messages.  What is wrong?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>Normally, &os; determines a number of kernel parameters,
-	    such as as the maximum number of files that can be open
-	    concurrently, from the amount of memory installed in the
-	    system.  On systems with one gigabyte of RAM or more, this
-	    <quote>auto sizing</quote> mechanism may choose values that
-	    are too high: while starting up, the kernel allocates
-	    various tables and other structures that fill up most of the
-	    available kernel memory.  Later on, while the system is
-	    running, the kernel has no more space left for dynamic
-	    memory allocations, and panics.</para>
-	  <para>Compile your own kernel, and add the
-	    <option>VM_KMEM_SIZE_MAX</option> to your kernel
-	    configuration file, increasing the maximum size to
-	    400&nbsp;MB (<option>options
-	    VM_KMEM_SIZE_MAX=419430400</option>).  400&nbsp;MB appears
-	    to be sufficient for machines with up to 6&nbsp;GB of
-	    memory.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
-	<question id="panic-kmemmap-too-small">
-	  <para>My system does not have 1&nbsp;GB of RAM, and &os; still
-	    panics with <errorname>kmem_map too
-	    small</errorname>!</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>The panic indicates that the system ran out of virtual
-	    memory for network buffers (specifically, mbuf clusters).
-	    You can increase the amount of VM available for mbuf
-	    clusters by following the instructions in the <ulink
-	      url="&url.books.handbook;/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#NMBCLUSTERS">Network Limits</ulink>
-	    section of the Handbook.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="proc-table-full">
 	  <para>Why do I get the error <errorname>kernel: proc: table is
@@ -3314,12 +3091,11 @@
 	    processes to exist at one time.  The number is based on the
 	    <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> &man.sysctl.8; variable.
 	    <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> also affects various other
-	    in-kernel limits, such as network buffers (see <link
-	      linkend="panic-kmemmap-too-small">this</link> earlier
-	    question).  If your machine is heavily loaded, you probably
-	    want to increase <varname>kern.maxusers</varname>.  This
-	    will increase these other system limits in addition to the
-	    maximum number of processes.</para>
+	    in-kernel limits, such as network buffers.  If your machine
+	    is heavily loaded, you probably want to increase
+	    <varname>kern.maxusers</varname>.  This will increase these
+	    other system limits in addition to the maximum number
+	    of processes.</para>
 	  <para>To adjust your <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> value,
 	    see the <ulink
@@ -4279,15 +4055,6 @@
-	    <varlistentry>
-	      <term>for 6.<replaceable>X</replaceable>-RELEASE/6-STABLE</term>
-	      <listitem>
-		<para><ulink
-		    url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable</ulink>
-		  </para>
-	      </listitem>
-	    </varlistentry>
 	      <term>for 7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>-RELEASE/7-STABLE</term>
@@ -5477,78 +5244,6 @@
-	<question id="removable-drives">
-	  <para>I have a new removable drive, how do I use it?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>Whether it is a removable drive like a &iomegazip; or an
-	    EZ drive (or even a floppy, if you want to use it that way),
-	    or a new hard disk, once it is installed and recognized by
-	    the system, and you have your cartridge/floppy/whatever
-	    slotted in, things are pretty much the same for all
-	    devices.</para>
-	  <para>(this section is based on <ulink
-	      url="http://www.vmunix.com/mark/FreeBSD/ZIP-FAQ.html">Mark Mayo's ZIP FAQ</ulink>)
-	    </para>
-	  <para>If it is a ZIP drive or a floppy, you have already got a
-	    DOS file system on it, you can use a command like this:</para>
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/fd0c /floppy</userinput></screen>
-	  <para>if it is a floppy, or this:</para>
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da2s4 /zip</userinput></screen>
-	  <para>for a ZIP disk with the factory configuration.</para>
-	  <para>For other disks, see how they are laid out using
-	    &man.fdisk.8; or &man.sysinstall.8;.</para>
-	  <para>The rest of the examples will be for a ZIP drive on
-	    <devicename>da2</devicename>, the third SCSI disk.</para>
-	  <para>Unless it is a floppy, or a removable you plan on
-	    sharing with other people, it is probably a better idea to
-	    stick a BSD file system on it.  You will get long filename
-	    support, at least a 2X improvement in performance, and a lot
-	    more stability.  First, you need to redo the DOS-level
-	    partitions/file systems.  You can either use &man.fdisk.8;
-	    or &man.sysinstall.8;, or for a small drive that you do not
-	    want to bother with multiple operating system support on,
-	    just blow away the whole FAT partition table (slices) and
-	    just use the BSD partitioning:</para>
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rda2 count=2</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -Brw da2 auto</userinput></screen>
-	  <para>You can use &man.disklabel.8; or &man.sysinstall.8; to
-	    create multiple BSD partitions.  You will certainly want to
-	    do this if you are adding swap space on a fixed disk, but it
-	    is probably irrelevant on a removable drive like a
-	    ZIP.</para>
-	  <para>Finally, create a new file system, this one is on our
-	    ZIP drive using the whole disk:</para>
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/rda2c</userinput></screen>
-	  <para>and mount it:</para>
-	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/da2c /zip</userinput></screen>
-	  <para>and it is probably a good idea to add a line like this
-	    to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> (see &man.fstab.5;) so
-	    you can just type <command>mount /zip</command> in the
-	    future:</para>
-	  <programlisting>/dev/da2c /zip ffs rw,noauto 0 0</programlisting>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="mount-cd-superblock">
 	  <para>Why do I get <errorname>Incorrect super
 	    block</errorname> when mounting a CD-ROM?</para>
@@ -6841,22 +6536,6 @@
-	<question id="why-choose-xorg">
-	  <para>Why did &os; choose to go with the &xorg; ports by
-	    default?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>The &xorg; developers claimed that their goal is to
-	    release more often and incorporate new features more
-	    quickly.  If they are able to do so, this will be very
-	    attractive.  Also, their software still uses the traditional
-	    X license, while &xfree86; is using their modified
-	    one.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="running-X">
 	  <para>I want to run X, how do I go about it?</para>
@@ -9533,78 +9212,6 @@
-      <qandaentry id=PPPoEwithNAT>
-	<question id="macos-win98-pppoe-freeze">
-	  <para>Why do &macos; and &windows;&nbsp;98 connections freeze
-	    when running PPPoE on the gateway?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>Thanks to Michael Wozniak
-	    <email>mwozniak at netcom.ca</email> for figuring this out and
-	    Dan Flemming <email>danflemming at mac.com</email> for the Mac
-	    solution:</para>
-	  <para>This is due to what is called a <quote>Black
-	    Hole</quote> router.  &macos; and &windows;&nbsp;98 (and maybe
-	    other &microsoft; OSs) send TCP packets with a requested
-	    segment size too big to fit into a PPPoE frame (MTU is
-	    <literal>1500</literal> by default for Ethernet)
-	    <emphasis>and</emphasis> have the <quote>do not
-	    fragment</quote> bit set (default of TCP) and the Telco
-	    router is not sending ICMP <quote>must fragment</quote> back
-	    to the WWW site you are trying to load.  (Alternatively, the
-	    router is sending the ICMP packet correctly, but the
-	    firewall at the WWW site is dropping it.) When the www
-	    server is sending you frames that do not fit into the PPPoE
-	    pipe the Telco router drops them on the floor and your page
-	    does not load (some pages/graphics do as they are smaller
-	    than a MSS).  This seems to be the default of most Telco
-	    PPPoE configurations.</para>
-	  <para>One fix is to use <application>regedit</application> on
-	    your 95/98 system to add the following registry entry:</para>
-	  <programlisting>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Class\NetTrans\0000\MaxMTU</programlisting>
-	  <para>It should be a string with a value
-	    <literal>1436</literal>, as some ADSL routers are reported
-	    to be unable to deal with packets larger than this.  This
-	    registry key has been changed to
-	    <literal>Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\<replaceable>ID for
-	    adapter</replaceable>\MTU</literal> in &windows;&nbsp;2000
-	    and becomes a <literal>DWORD</literal>.</para>
-	  <para>Refer to the Microsoft Knowledge Base documents <ulink
-	      url="http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q158/4/74.asp">Q158474 - Windows TCPIP Registry Entries</ulink>
-	    and <ulink
-	      url="http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q120/6/42.asp">Q120642 - TCPIP & NBT Configuration Parameters for &windowsnt;</ulink>
-	    for more information on changing &windows; MTU to work with
-	    a NAT router.</para>
-	  <para>Another regedit possibility under &windows;&nbsp;2000 to
-	    set the <literal>Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\<replaceable>ID
-	    for adapter</replaceable>\EnablePMTUBHDetect</literal>
-	    <literal>DWORD</literal> to <literal>1</literal> as
-	    mentioned in the Microsoft document 120642 mentioned
-	    above.</para>
-	  <para>Unfortunately, &macos; does not provide an interface for
-	    changing TCP/IP settings.  However, there are several commercial
-	    programs available that will allow users to customize TCP/IP
-	    settings.  &macos; NAT users should search for their MTU
-	    settings and enter <literal>1450</literal> instead of
-	    <literal>1500</literal>.</para>
-	  <para>The &man.ppp.8; has an <command>enable
-	    tcpmssfixup</command> command that will automatically adjust
-	    the MSS to an appropriate value.  This facility is enabled
-	    by default.  If you are stuck with an older version of
-	    &man.ppp.8;, you may want to look at the <filename
-	      role="package">net/tcpmssd</filename> port.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
 	<question id="desperation">
 	  <para>None of this helps &mdash; I am desperate!  What can I
@@ -10570,7 +10177,10 @@
 	  <para><emphasis>And then I was enlightened
-	    :-)</emphasis></para>
+	      :-)</emphasis></para>
+	  <para>1 to remove the documentation that has been outdated
+	    five minutes later</para>
 	  <para><emphasis>&a.tabthorpe;</emphasis> says: <quote>None,
 	    <emphasis>real</emphasis> &os; hackers are not afraid of the
@@ -10803,24 +10413,6 @@
-	<question id="split-1392k">
-	  <para>How did you split the distribution into 1392&nbsp;KB
-	    files?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>Newer BSD based systems have a <option>-b</option>
-	    option to &man.split.1; that allows them to split files on
-	    arbitrary byte boundaries.</para>
-	  <para>Here is an example from
-	    <filename>/usr/src/release/Makefile</filename>.</para>
-	  <programlisting>ZIPNSPLIT=              gzip --no-name -9 -c | split -b 1392k -</programlisting>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="submitting-kernel-extensions">
 	  <para>I have written a kernel extension, who do I send it
@@ -10924,20 +10516,6 @@
-	<question id="major-numbers">
-	  <para>Can you assign a major number for a device driver I have
-	    written?</para>
-	</question>
-	<answer>
-	  <para>&os; releases after February 2003 has a facility for
-	    dynamically and automatically allocating major numbers for
-	    device drivers at runtime (see &man.devfs.5;), so there is
-	    no need for this.</para>
-	</answer>
-      </qandaentry>
-      <qandaentry>
 	<question id="alternate-directory-layout">
 	  <para>What about alternative layout policies for


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