# git: a1684fc734ef - stable/14 - vendor/bc: MFC upgrade from version 6,6.0 to 6.7.5

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**Stefan Eßer <se_at_FreeBSD.org>**

*From:***Thu, 18 Jan 2024 17:56:18 UTC**

*Date:*The branch stable/14 has been updated by se: URL: https://cgit.FreeBSD.org/src/commit/?id=a1684fc734efd8cd4352cfd014a02ad9a95cc7cb commit a1684fc734efd8cd4352cfd014a02ad9a95cc7cb Author: Stefan Eßer <se@FreeBSD.org> AuthorDate: 2023-10-30 09:10:24 +0000 Commit: Stefan Eßer <se@FreeBSD.org> CommitDate: 2024-01-18 17:51:39 +0000 vendor/bc: MFC upgrade from version 6,6.0 to 6.7.5 This is a squashed updated consisting of: vendor/bc: upgrade to version 6.7.2 This update improves the implementation of the power function p() and adds 3 new functions to the extended math library: min(), max(), and i2rand(). (cherry picked from commit aa339f1d5df9e38f36a34eb522355c4eebcae6c4) vendor/bc: upgrade to version 6.7.4 Documentation updates only, no functional changes to the software. (cherry picked from commit e6857bd4d7b4bf39ea32b9dcd34f8371164c356e) vendor/bc: upgrade to version 6.7.5 This update fixes a bug that line breaks in printed numbers may not match the line length set by the user. The value is printed correctly, just not split as specified in some situations. (cherry picked from commit f4fbc49d201f81c481a33fac6ba28e19faf96260) --- contrib/bc/Makefile.in | 2 +- contrib/bc/NEWS.md | 45 +- contrib/bc/configure.sh | 26 +- contrib/bc/gen/lib2.bc | 45 +- contrib/bc/include/bc.h | 2 +- contrib/bc/include/bcl.h | 3 - contrib/bc/include/history.h | 4 - contrib/bc/include/num.h | 6 +- contrib/bc/include/version.h | 2 +- contrib/bc/manuals/algorithms.md | 69 +++ contrib/bc/manuals/bc/A.1 | 174 +++--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/A.1.md | 48 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/E.1 | 115 +--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/E.1.md | 2 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/EH.1 | 113 +--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/EH.1.md | 2 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/EHN.1 | 112 +--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/EHN.1.md | 2 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/EN.1 | 114 +--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/EN.1.md | 2 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/H.1 | 172 +++--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/H.1.md | 48 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/HN.1 | 171 +++--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/HN.1.md | 48 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/N.1 | 173 +++--- contrib/bc/manuals/bc/N.1.md | 48 +- contrib/bc/manuals/bcl.3 | 43 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/A.1 | 49 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/E.1 | 48 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/EH.1 | 46 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/EHN.1 | 45 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/EN.1 | 47 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/H.1 | 47 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/HN.1 | 46 +- contrib/bc/manuals/dc/N.1 | 48 +- contrib/bc/scripts/sqrt_frac_guess.bc | 126 ++++ contrib/bc/scripts/sqrt_int_guess.bc | 94 +++ contrib/bc/scripts/sqrt_random.bc | 129 ++++ contrib/bc/scripts/sqrt_random.sh | 77 +++ contrib/bc/src/num.c | 51 +- contrib/bc/src/program.c | 4 +- contrib/bc/src/vm.c | 2 +- contrib/bc/tests/bc/lib2.txt | 1 + contrib/bc/tests/bc/lib2_results.txt | 4 +- contrib/bc/tests/bc/scripts/all.txt | 2 + contrib/bc/tests/bc/scripts/i2rand.bc | 29 + contrib/bc/tests/bc/scripts/i2rand.txt | 1000 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ contrib/bc/tests/bc/scripts/print2.bc | 63 ++ contrib/bc/tests/bc/scripts/print2.txt | 650 +++++++++++++++++++++ contrib/bc/tests/bc/sqrt.txt | 2 + contrib/bc/tests/bc/sqrt_results.txt | 2 + contrib/bc/tests/script.sh | 2 +- contrib/bc/vs/bc.vcxproj | 4 + contrib/bc/vs/bcl.vcxproj | 6 + 54 files changed, 2980 insertions(+), 1235 deletions(-) diff --git a/contrib/bc/Makefile.in b/contrib/bc/Makefile.in index 55e2e4a6270a..e1309cd6d6b3 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/Makefile.in +++ b/contrib/bc/Makefile.in @@ -554,7 +554,7 @@ clean_config: clean clean_benchmarks clean_coverage: @printf 'Cleaning coverage files...\n' @$(RM) -f *.gcov - @$(RM) -f *.html + @$(RM) -f *.html *.css @$(RM) -f *.gcda *.gcno @$(RM) -f *.profraw @$(RM) -f $(GCDA) $(GCNO) diff --git a/contrib/bc/NEWS.md b/contrib/bc/NEWS.md index de3b35026fea..32e74de31231 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/NEWS.md +++ b/contrib/bc/NEWS.md @@ -1,5 +1,48 @@ # News +## 6.7.5 + +This is a production release to fix one small bug. + +The bug is that sometimes numbers are printed to incorrect line lengths. The +number is always correct; the line is just longer than the limit. + +Users who do not care do not need to update. + +## 6.7.4 + +This is a production release to fix problems in the `bc` manual. + +Users only need to update if desired. + +## 6.7.3 + +This is a production release to fix the library build on Mac OSX. + +Users on other platforms do *not* need to update. + +## 6.7.2 + +This is a production release to remove some debugging code that I accidentally +committed. + +## 6.7.1 + +This is a production release with a bug fix for `SIGINT` only being handled +once. + +## 6.7.0 + +This is a production release with three new functions in the [extended math +library][16]: `min()`, `max()`, and `i2rand()`. + +## 6.6.1 + +This is a production release with an improved `p()` function in the [extended +math library][16]. + +Users who don't care do not need to upgrade. + ## 6.6.0 This is a production release with two bug fixes and one change. @@ -751,7 +794,7 @@ function, `strdup()`, which is not in POSIX 2001, and it is in the X/Open System Interfaces group 2001. It is, however, in POSIX 2008, and since POSIX 2008 is old enough to be supported anywhere that I care, that should be the requirement. -Second, the BcVm global variable was put into `bss`. This actually slightly +Second, the `BcVm` global variable was put into `bss`. This actually slightly reduces the size of the executable from a massive code shrink, and it will stop `bc` from allocating a large set of memory when `bc` starts. diff --git a/contrib/bc/configure.sh b/contrib/bc/configure.sh index 4ba957131d52..9292f094bb17 100755 --- a/contrib/bc/configure.sh +++ b/contrib/bc/configure.sh @@ -461,7 +461,7 @@ find_src_files() { fi - _find_src_files_files=$(find "$scriptdir/src/" -depth -name "*.c" -print | LC_ALL=C sort) + _find_src_files_files=$(find "$scriptdir/src" -depth -name "*.c" -print | LC_ALL=C sort) _find_src_files_result="" @@ -772,7 +772,7 @@ predefined_build() { dc_default_digit_clamp=0;; GDH) - CFLAGS="-flto -Weverything -Wno-padded -Wno-unsafe-buffer-usage -Werror -pedantic -std=c11" + CFLAGS="-flto -Weverything -Wno-padded -Wno-unsafe-buffer-usage -Wno-poison-system-directories -Werror -pedantic -std=c11" bc_only=0 dc_only=0 coverage=0 @@ -806,7 +806,7 @@ predefined_build() { dc_default_digit_clamp=1;; DBG) - CFLAGS="-Weverything -Wno-padded -Wno-unsafe-buffer-usage -Werror -pedantic -std=c11" + CFLAGS="-Weverything -Wno-padded -Wno-unsafe-buffer-usage -Wno-poison-system-directories -Werror -pedantic -std=c11" bc_only=0 dc_only=0 coverage=0 @@ -1364,21 +1364,10 @@ if [ "$debug" -eq 1 ]; then CFLAGS="-O0" fi - ccbase=$(basename "$CC") - - if [ "$ccbase" = "clang" ]; then - CFLAGS="-gdwarf-4 $CFLAGS" - else - CFLAGS="-g $CFLAGS" - fi + CFLAGS="-g $CFLAGS" else - CPPFLAGS="-DNDEBUG $CPPFLAGS" - - if [ "$strip_bin" -ne 0 ]; then - LDFLAGS="-s $LDFLAGS" - fi fi # Set optimization CFLAGS. @@ -1700,6 +1689,11 @@ else apple="" fi +# We can't use the linker's strip flag on Mac OSX. +if [ "$debug" -eq 0 ] && [ "$apple" == "" ] && [ "$strip_bin" -ne 0 ]; then + LDFLAGS="-s $LDFLAGS" +fi + # Test OpenBSD. This is not in an if statement because regardless of whatever # the user says, we need to know if we are on OpenBSD to activate _BSD_SOURCE. # No, I cannot `#define _BSD_SOURCE` in a header because OpenBSD's patched GCC @@ -1872,6 +1866,8 @@ dc_tests=$(gen_std_test_targets dc) dc_script_tests=$(gen_script_test_targets dc) dc_err_tests=$(gen_err_test_targets dc) +printf 'unneeded: %s\n' "$unneeded" + # Print out the values; this is for debugging. printf 'Version: %s\n' "$version" diff --git a/contrib/bc/gen/lib2.bc b/contrib/bc/gen/lib2.bc index ba3f76b1803a..df51d0c07a8d 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/gen/lib2.bc +++ b/contrib/bc/gen/lib2.bc @@ -34,10 +34,34 @@ */ define p(x,y){ - auto a + auto a,i,s,z + if(y==0)return 1@scale + if(x==0){ + if(y>0)return 0 + return 1/0 + } a=y$ if(y==a)return(x^a)@scale - return e(y*l(x)) + z=0 + if(x<1){ + y=-y + a=-a + z=x + x=1/x + } + if(y<0){ + return e(y*l(x)) + } + i=x^a + s=scale + scale+=length(i)+5 + if(z){ + x=1/z + i=x^a + } + i*=e((y-a)*l(x)) + scale=s + return i@scale } define r(x,p){ auto t,n @@ -66,6 +90,14 @@ define f(n){ for(r=1;n>1;--n)r*=n return r } +define max(a,b){ + if(a>b)return a + return b +} +define min(a,b){ + if(a<b)return a + return b +} define perm(n,k){ auto f,g,s if(k>n)return 0 @@ -242,6 +274,15 @@ define frand(p){ return irand(A^p)>>p } define ifrand(i,p){return irand(abs(i)$)+frand(p)} +define i2rand(a,b){ + auto n,x + a=a$ + b=b$ + if(a==b)return a + n=min(a,b) + x=max(a,b) + return irand(x-n+1)+n +} define srand(x){ if(irand(2))return -x return x diff --git a/contrib/bc/include/bc.h b/contrib/bc/include/bc.h index 73a85aa406a0..17fd0b9d171f 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/include/bc.h +++ b/contrib/bc/include/bc.h @@ -276,7 +276,7 @@ bc_lex_token(BcLex* l); * @return True if i is an expression token, false otherwise. */ #define BC_PARSE_EXPR(i) \ - (bc_parse_exprs[(((i) & (uchar) ~(0x07)) >> 3)] & (1 << (7 - ((i) &0x07)))) + (bc_parse_exprs[(((i) & (uchar) ~(0x07)) >> 3)] & (1 << (7 - ((i) & 0x07)))) /** * Returns the operator (by lex token) that is at the top of the operator diff --git a/contrib/bc/include/bcl.h b/contrib/bc/include/bcl.h index 0908e215182c..d3a9f42cdcf8 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/include/bcl.h +++ b/contrib/bc/include/bcl.h @@ -36,9 +36,6 @@ #ifndef BC_BCL_H #define BC_BCL_H -// TODO: Add a generation index when building with Valgrind to check for -// use-after-free's or double frees. - #include <stdbool.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <limits.h> diff --git a/contrib/bc/include/history.h b/contrib/bc/include/history.h index 19c5a0fe27f7..64402c4dffa1 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/include/history.h +++ b/contrib/bc/include/history.h @@ -173,10 +173,6 @@ typedef struct BcHistory #include <vector.h> #include <read.h> -#if BC_DEBUG_CODE -#include <file.h> -#endif // BC_DEBUG_CODE - /// Default columns. #define BC_HIST_DEF_COLS (80) diff --git a/contrib/bc/include/num.h b/contrib/bc/include/num.h index d24c206cbe51..6c9dee107f2f 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/include/num.h +++ b/contrib/bc/include/num.h @@ -211,9 +211,9 @@ struct BcRNG; #define BC_NUM_KARATSUBA_ALLOCS (6) /** - * Rounds @a s (scale) up to the next power of BC_BASE_DIGS. This also check for - * overflow and gives a fatal error if that happens because we just can't go - * over the limits we have imposed. + * Rounds @a s (scale) up to the next power of BC_BASE_DIGS. This will also + * check for overflow and gives a fatal error if that happens because we just + * can't go over the limits we have imposed. * @param s The scale to round up. * @return @a s rounded up to the next power of BC_BASE_DIGS. */ diff --git a/contrib/bc/include/version.h b/contrib/bc/include/version.h index a4df383e284a..e2576269345d 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/include/version.h +++ b/contrib/bc/include/version.h @@ -37,6 +37,6 @@ #define BC_VERSION_H /// The current version. -#define VERSION 6.6.0 +#define VERSION 6.7.5 #endif // BC_VERSION_H diff --git a/contrib/bc/manuals/algorithms.md b/contrib/bc/manuals/algorithms.md index 4d7a0edc54c4..ce27bf026b69 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/manuals/algorithms.md +++ b/contrib/bc/manuals/algorithms.md @@ -193,6 +193,74 @@ The algorithm used is to use the formula `e(y*l(x))`. It has a complexity of `O(n^3)` because both `e()` and `l()` do. +However, there are details to this algorithm, described by the author, +TediusTimmy, in GitHub issue [#69][12]. + +First, check if the exponent is 0. If it is, return 1 at the appropriate +`scale`. + +Next, check if the number is 0. If so, check if the exponent is greater than +zero; if it is, return 0. If the exponent is less than 0, error (with a divide +by 0) because that is undefined. + +Next, check if the exponent is actually an integer, and if it is, use the +exponentiation operator. + +At the `z=0` line is the start of the meat of the new code. + +`z` is set to zero as a flag and as a value. What I mean by that will be clear +later. + +Then we check if the number is less than 0. If it is, we negate the exponent +(and the integer version of the exponent, which we calculated earlier to check +if it was an integer). We also save the number in `z`; being non-zero is a flag +for later and a value to be used. Then we store the reciprocal of the number in +itself. + +All of the above paragraph will not make sense unless you remember the +relationship `l(x) == -l(1/x)`; we negated the exponent, which is equivalent to +the negative sign in that relationship, and we took the reciprocal of the +number, which is equivalent to the reciprocal in the relationship. + +But what if the number is negative? We ignore that for now because we eventually +call `l(x)`, which will raise an error if `x` is negative. + +Now, we can keep going. + +If at this point, the exponent is negative, we need to use the original formula +(`e(y * l(x))`) and return that result because the result will go to zero +anyway. + +But if we did *not* return, we know the exponent is *not* negative, so we can +get clever. + +We then compute the integral portion of the power by computing the number to +power of the integral portion of the exponent. + +Then we have the most clever trick: we add the length of that integer power (and +a little extra) to the `scale`. Why? Because this will ensure that the next part +is calculated to at least as many digits as should be in the integer *plus* any +extra `scale` that was wanted. + +Then we check `z`, which, if it is not zero, is the original value of the +number. If it is not zero, we need to take the take the reciprocal *again* +because now we have the correct `scale`. And we *also* have to calculate the +integer portion of the power again. + +Then we need to calculate the fractional portion of the number. We do this by +using the original formula, but we instead of calculating `e(y * l(x))`, we +calculate `e((y - a) * l(x))`, where `a` is the integer portion of `y`. It's +easy to see that `y - a` will be just the fractional portion of `y` (the +exponent), so this makes sense. + +But then we *multiply* it into the integer portion of the power. Why? Because +remember: we're dealing with an exponent and a power; the relationship is +`x^(y+z) == (x^y)*(x^z)`. + +So we multiply it into the integer portion of the power. + +Finally, we set the result to the `scale`. + ### Rounding (`bc` Math Library 2 Only) This is implemented in the function `r(x,p)`. @@ -327,3 +395,4 @@ It has a complexity of `O(n^3)` because of arctangent. [9]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root-finding_algorithms#Newton's_method_(and_similar_derivative-based_methods) [10]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_algorithm [11]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atan2#Definition_and_computation +[12]: https://github.com/gavinhoward/bc/issues/69 diff --git a/contrib/bc/manuals/bc/A.1 b/contrib/bc/manuals/bc/A.1 index 5de2d3529bcf..1810beaf9291 100644 --- a/contrib/bc/manuals/bc/A.1 +++ b/contrib/bc/manuals/bc/A.1 @@ -25,14 +25,12 @@ .\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE .\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. .\" -.TH "BC" "1" "February 2023" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual" +.TH "BC" "1" "November 2023" "Gavin D. Howard" "General Commands Manual" .nh .ad l .SH NAME -.PP bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator .SH SYNOPSIS -.PP \f[B]bc\f[R] [\f[B]-cCghilPqRsvVw\f[R]] [\f[B]--digit-clamp\f[R]] [\f[B]--no-digit-clamp\f[R]] [\f[B]--global-stacks\f[R]] [\f[B]--help\f[R]] [\f[B]--interactive\f[R]] [\f[B]--mathlib\f[R]] @@ -48,7 +46,6 @@ bc - arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic language and calculator [\f[B]-S\f[R] \f[I]scale\f[R]] [\f[B]--scale\f[R]=\f[I]scale\f[R]] [\f[B]-E\f[R] \f[I]seed\f[R]] [\f[B]--seed\f[R]=\f[I]seed\f[R]] .SH DESCRIPTION -.PP bc(1) is an interactive processor for a language first standardized in 1991 by POSIX. (See the \f[B]STANDARDS\f[R] section.) @@ -77,7 +74,6 @@ If parsing scripts meant for other bc(1) implementations still does not work, that is a bug and should be reported. See the \f[B]BUGS\f[R] section. .SH OPTIONS -.PP The following are the options that bc(1) accepts. .TP \f[B]-C\f[R], \f[B]--no-digit-clamp\f[R] @@ -189,19 +185,16 @@ without worrying that the change will affect other functions. Thus, a hypothetical function named \f[B]output(x,b)\f[R] that simply printed \f[B]x\f[R] in base \f[B]b\f[R] could be written like this: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX define void output(x, b) { obase=b x } -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP instead of like this: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX define void output(x, b) { auto c c=obase @@ -209,8 +202,7 @@ define void output(x, b) { x obase=c } -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP This makes writing functions much easier. .PP @@ -228,12 +220,10 @@ converter, it is possible to replace that capability with various shell aliases. Examples: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX alias d2o=\[dq]bc -e ibase=A -e obase=8\[dq] alias h2b=\[dq]bc -e ibase=G -e obase=2\[dq] -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP Second, if the purpose of a function is to set \f[B]ibase\f[R], \f[B]obase\f[R], \f[B]scale\f[R], or \f[B]seed\f[R] globally for any @@ -251,11 +241,9 @@ If a function desires to not affect the sequence of pseudo-random numbers of its parents, but wants to use the same \f[B]seed\f[R], it can use the following line: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX seed = seed -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP If the behavior of this option is desired for every run of bc(1), then users could make sure to define \f[B]BC_ENV_ARGS\f[R] and include this @@ -485,7 +473,6 @@ This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .PP All long options are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R]. .SH STDIN -.PP If no files or expressions are given by the \f[B]-f\f[R], \f[B]--file\f[R], \f[B]-e\f[R], or \f[B]--expression\f[R] options, then bc(1) reads from \f[B]stdin\f[R]. @@ -502,7 +489,6 @@ Second, after an \f[B]if\f[R] statement, bc(1) doesn\[cq]t know if an \f[B]else\f[R] statement will follow, so it will not execute until it knows there will not be an \f[B]else\f[R] statement. .SH STDOUT -.PP Any non-error output is written to \f[B]stdout\f[R]. In addition, if history (see the \f[B]HISTORY\f[R] section) and the prompt (see the \f[B]TTY MODE\f[R] section) are enabled, both are output @@ -511,7 +497,7 @@ to \f[B]stdout\f[R]. \f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot write to \f[B]stdout\f[R], so if \f[B]stdout\f[R] is closed, as in -\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error. +\f[B]bc >&-\f[R], it will quit with an error. This is done so that bc(1) can report problems when \f[B]stdout\f[R] is redirected to a file. .PP @@ -519,13 +505,12 @@ If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1) implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to redirect \f[B]stdout\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R]. .SH STDERR -.PP Any error output is written to \f[B]stderr\f[R]. .PP \f[B]Note\f[R]: Unlike other bc(1) implementations, this bc(1) will issue a fatal error (see the \f[B]EXIT STATUS\f[R] section) if it cannot write to \f[B]stderr\f[R], so if \f[B]stderr\f[R] is closed, as in -\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error. +\f[B]bc 2>&-\f[R], it will quit with an error. This is done so that bc(1) can exit with an error code when \f[B]stderr\f[R] is redirected to a file. .PP @@ -533,7 +518,6 @@ If there are scripts that depend on the behavior of other bc(1) implementations, it is recommended that those scripts be changed to redirect \f[B]stderr\f[R] to \f[B]/dev/null\f[R]. .SH SYNTAX -.PP The syntax for bc(1) programs is mostly C-like, with some differences. This bc(1) follows the POSIX standard (see the \f[B]STANDARDS\f[R] section), which is a much more thorough resource for the language this @@ -618,7 +602,6 @@ These are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R]. .PP Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements. .SS Comments -.PP There are two kinds of comments: .IP "1." 3 Block comments are enclosed in \f[B]/*\f[R] and \f[B]*/\f[R]. @@ -627,7 +610,6 @@ Line comments go from \f[B]#\f[R] until, and not including, the next newline. This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .SS Named Expressions -.PP The following are named expressions in bc(1): .IP "1." 3 Variables: \f[B]I\f[R] @@ -684,7 +666,6 @@ Named expressions are required as the operand of of \f[B]assignment\f[R] operators (see the \f[I]Operators\f[R] subsection). .SS Operands -.PP The following are valid operands in bc(1): .IP " 1." 4 Numbers (see the \f[I]Numbers\f[R] subsection below). @@ -829,7 +810,6 @@ where a reproducible stream of pseudo-random numbers is \f[I]ESSENTIAL\f[R]. In any other case, use a non-seeded pseudo-random number generator. .SS Numbers -.PP Numbers are strings made up of digits, uppercase letters, and at most \f[B]1\f[R] period for a radix. Numbers can have up to \f[B]BC_NUM_MAX\f[R] digits. @@ -901,7 +881,6 @@ number string \f[B]FFeA\f[R], the resulting decimal number will be Accepting input as scientific notation is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .SS Operators -.PP The following arithmetic and logical operators can be used. They are listed in order of decreasing precedence. Operators in the same group have the same precedence. @@ -1018,9 +997,9 @@ The operators will be described in more detail below. .TP \f[B]++\f[R] \f[B]--\f[R] The prefix and postfix \f[B]increment\f[R] and \f[B]decrement\f[R] -operators behave exactly like they would in C. -They require a named expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] -subsection) as an operand. +operators behave exactly like they would in C. They require a named +expression (see the \f[I]Named Expressions\f[R] subsection) as an +operand. .RS .PP The prefix versions of these operators are more efficient; use them @@ -1192,7 +1171,6 @@ This is \f[I]not\f[R] a short-circuit operator. This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .RE .SS Statements -.PP The following items are statements: .IP " 1." 4 \f[B]E\f[R] @@ -1270,11 +1248,9 @@ occur before the \f[B]quit\f[R] statement before exiting. .PP In other words, for the bc(1) code below: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) i; quit -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP Other bc(1) implementations will print nothing, and this bc(1) will print \f[B]0\f[R], \f[B]1\f[R], and \f[B]2\f[R] on successive lines @@ -1305,7 +1281,6 @@ run with either the \f[B]-s\f[R] or \f[B]-w\f[R] command-line options Printing numbers in scientific notation and/or engineering notation is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .SS Strings -.PP If strings appear as a statement by themselves, they are printed without a trailing newline. .PP @@ -1324,7 +1299,6 @@ resets (see the \f[B]RESET\f[R] section). Assigning strings to variables and array elements and passing them to functions are \f[B]non-portable extensions\f[R]. .SS Print Statement -.PP The \[lq]expressions\[rq] in a \f[B]print\f[R] statement may also be strings. If they are, there are backslash escape sequences that are interpreted @@ -1356,9 +1330,7 @@ character to be printed as-is. Any non-string expression in a print statement shall be assigned to \f[B]last\f[R], like any other expression that is printed. .SS Stream Statement -.PP -The \[lq]expressions in a \f[B]stream\f[R] statement may also be -strings. +The expressions in a \f[B]stream\f[R] statement may also be strings. .PP If a \f[B]stream\f[R] statement is given a string, it prints the string as though the string had appeared as its own statement. @@ -1371,17 +1343,14 @@ The result is then printed as though \f[B]obase\f[R] is \f[B]256\f[R] and each digit is interpreted as an 8-bit ASCII character, making it a byte stream. .SS Order of Evaluation -.PP All expressions in a statment are evaluated left to right, except as necessary to maintain order of operations. This means, for example, assuming that \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], in the expression .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX a[i++] = i++ -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP the first (or 0th) element of \f[B]a\f[R] is set to \f[B]1\f[R], and \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] at the end of the expression. @@ -1390,28 +1359,23 @@ This includes function arguments. Thus, assuming \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]0\f[R], this means that in the expression .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX x(i++, i++) -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP the first argument passed to \f[B]x()\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], and the second argument is \f[B]1\f[R], while \f[B]i\f[R] is equal to \f[B]2\f[R] before the function starts executing. .SH FUNCTIONS -.PP Function definitions are as follows: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX define I(I,...,I){ auto I,...,I S;...;S return(E) } -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP Any \f[B]I\f[R] in the parameter list or \f[B]auto\f[R] list may be replaced with \f[B]I[]\f[R] to make a parameter or \f[B]auto\f[R] var an @@ -1439,18 +1403,15 @@ equivalent to \f[B]return (0)\f[R], unless the function is a \f[B]void\f[R] function (see the \f[I]Void Functions\f[R] subsection below). .SS Void Functions -.PP Functions can also be \f[B]void\f[R] functions, defined as follows: .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX define void I(I,...,I){ auto I,...,I S;...;S return } -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP They can only be used as standalone expressions, where such an expression would be printed alone, except in a print statement. @@ -1466,15 +1427,12 @@ The word \[lq]void\[rq] is only treated specially right after the .PP This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .SS Array References -.PP For any array in the parameter list, if the array is declared in the form .IP -.nf -\f[C] +.EX *I[] -\f[R] -.fi +.EE .PP it is a \f[B]reference\f[R]. Any changes to the array in the function are reflected, when the @@ -1484,7 +1442,6 @@ Other than this, all function arguments are passed by value. .PP This is a \f[B]non-portable extension\f[R]. .SH LIBRARY -.PP All of the functions below, including the functions in the extended math library (see the \f[I]Extended Library\f[R] subsection below), are available when the \f[B]-l\f[R] or \f[B]--mathlib\f[R] command-line @@ -1492,7 +1449,6 @@ flags are given, except that the extended math library is not available when the \f[B]-s\f[R] option, the \f[B]-w\f[R] option, or equivalents are given. .SS Standard Library -.PP The standard (see the \f[B]STANDARDS\f[R] section) defines the following functions for the math library: .TP @@ -1545,7 +1501,6 @@ This is a transcendental function (see the \f[I]Transcendental Functions\f[R] subsection below). .RE .SS Extended Library -.PP The extended library is \f[I]not\f[R] loaded when the \f[B]-s\f[R]/\f[B]--standard\f[R] or \f[B]-w\f[R]/\f[B]--warn\f[R] options are given since they are not part of the library defined by the @@ -1579,6 +1534,14 @@ the rounding mode round away from \f[B]0\f[R] \f[B]f(x)\f[R] Returns the factorial of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R]. .TP +\f[B]max(a, b)\f[R] +Returns \f[B]a\f[R] if \f[B]a\f[R] is greater than \f[B]b\f[R]; +otherwise, returns \f[B]b\f[R]. +.TP +\f[B]min(a, b)\f[R] +Returns \f[B]a\f[R] if \f[B]a\f[R] is less than \f[B]b\f[R]; otherwise, +returns \f[B]b\f[R]. +.TP \f[B]perm(n, k)\f[R] Returns the permutation of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]n\f[R] of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]k\f[R], if \f[B]k <= n\f[R]. @@ -1589,6 +1552,10 @@ Returns the combination of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]n\f[R] of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]k\f[R], if \f[B]k <= n\f[R]. If not, it returns \f[B]0\f[R]. .TP +\f[B]fib(n)\f[R] +Returns the Fibonacci number of the truncated absolute value of +\f[B]n\f[R]. +.TP \f[B]l2(x)\f[R] Returns the logarithm base \f[B]2\f[R] of \f[B]x\f[R]. .RS @@ -1759,7 +1726,7 @@ Functions\f[R] subsection below). .RE .TP \f[B]frand(p)\f[R] -Generates a pseudo-random number between \f[B]0\f[R] (inclusive) and +Generates a pseudo-random integer between \f[B]0\f[R] (inclusive) and \f[B]1\f[R] (exclusive) with the number of decimal digits after the decimal point equal to the truncated absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R]. If \f[B]p\f[R] is not \f[B]0\f[R], then calling this function will @@ -1768,14 +1735,22 @@ If \f[B]p\f[R] is \f[B]0\f[R], then \f[B]0\f[R] is returned, and \f[B]seed\f[R] is \f[I]not\f[R] changed. .TP \f[B]ifrand(i, p)\f[R] -Generates a pseudo-random number that is between \f[B]0\f[R] (inclusive) -and the truncated absolute value of \f[B]i\f[R] (exclusive) with the -number of decimal digits after the decimal point equal to the truncated -absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R]. +Generates a pseudo-random integer that is between \f[B]0\f[R] +(inclusive) and the truncated absolute value of \f[B]i\f[R] (exclusive) +with the number of decimal digits after the decimal point equal to the +truncated absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R]. If the absolute value of \f[B]i\f[R] is greater than or equal to \f[B]2\f[R], and \f[B]p\f[R] is not \f[B]0\f[R], then calling this function will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[R]; otherwise, \f[B]0\f[R] -is returned and \f[B]seed\f[R] is not changed. +is returned, and \f[B]seed\f[R] is not changed. +.TP +\f[B]i2rand(a, b)\f[R] +Takes the truncated value of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] and uses them +as inclusive bounds to enerate a pseudo-random integer. +If the difference of the truncated values of \f[B]a\f[R] and \f[B]b\f[R] +is \f[B]0\f[R], then the truncated value is returned, and \f[B]seed\f[R] +is \f[I]not\f[R] changed. +Otherwise, this function will change the value of \f[B]seed\f[R]. .TP \f[B]srand(x)\f[R] Returns \f[B]x\f[R] with its sign flipped with probability @@ -1847,7 +1822,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]bnot8(x)\f[R] Does a bitwise not of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has \f[B]8\f[R] binary digits (1 unsigned byte). +though it has \f[B]8\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]1\f[R] unsigned byte). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1856,7 +1831,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]bnot16(x)\f[R] Does a bitwise not of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has \f[B]16\f[R] binary digits (2 unsigned bytes). +though it has \f[B]16\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]2\f[R] unsigned bytes). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1865,7 +1840,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]bnot32(x)\f[R] Does a bitwise not of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has \f[B]32\f[R] binary digits (4 unsigned bytes). +though it has \f[B]32\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]4\f[R] unsigned bytes). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1874,7 +1849,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]bnot64(x)\f[R] Does a bitwise not of the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has \f[B]64\f[R] binary digits (8 unsigned bytes). +though it has \f[B]64\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]8\f[R] unsigned bytes). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1902,7 +1877,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]brev8(x)\f[R] Runs a bit reversal on the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has 8 binary digits (1 unsigned byte). +though it has 8 binary digits (\f[B]1\f[R] unsigned byte). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1911,7 +1886,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]brev16(x)\f[R] Runs a bit reversal on the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has 16 binary digits (2 unsigned bytes). +though it has 16 binary digits (\f[B]2\f[R] unsigned bytes). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1920,7 +1895,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]brev32(x)\f[R] Runs a bit reversal on the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has 32 binary digits (4 unsigned bytes). +though it has 32 binary digits (\f[B]4\f[R] unsigned bytes). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1929,7 +1904,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]brev64(x)\f[R] Runs a bit reversal on the truncated absolute value of \f[B]x\f[R] as -though it has 64 binary digits (8 unsigned bytes). +though it has 64 binary digits (\f[B]8\f[R] unsigned bytes). .RS .PP If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use @@ -1982,7 +1957,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]brol32(x, p)\f[R] Does a left bitwise rotatation of the truncated absolute value of -\f[B]x\f[R], as though it has \f[B]32\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]2\f[R] +\f[B]x\f[R], as though it has \f[B]32\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]4\f[R] unsigned bytes), by the number of places equal to the truncated absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R] modded by \f[B]2\f[R] to the power of \f[B]32\f[R]. .RS @@ -1993,7 +1968,7 @@ If you want to a use signed two\[cq]s complement argument, use .TP \f[B]brol64(x, p)\f[R] Does a left bitwise rotatation of the truncated absolute value of -\f[B]x\f[R], as though it has \f[B]64\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]2\f[R] +\f[B]x\f[R], as though it has \f[B]64\f[R] binary digits (\f[B]8\f[R] unsigned bytes), by the number of places equal to the truncated absolute value of \f[B]p\f[R] modded by \f[B]2\f[R] to the power of \f[B]64\f[R]. .RS *** 9633 LINES SKIPPED ***