git: 5ab16dfded - main - FAQ: Complete FAQ rewrite

From: Sergio Carlavilla Delgado <>
Date: Wed, 11 Oct 2023 19:23:24 UTC
The branch main has been updated by carlavilla:


commit 5ab16dfdedb053e126d7d175c6d3b94aa2bca286
Author:     Sergio Carlavilla Delgado <>
AuthorDate: 2023-10-11 18:42:03 +0000
Commit:     Sergio Carlavilla Delgado <>
CommitDate: 2023-10-11 19:23:16 +0000

    FAQ: Complete FAQ rewrite
    Complete rewrite of the FAQ is being carried out to offer a version
    agnostic to the FreeBSD version and some simple entries.
    The idea behind this rewrite has been to simplify the FAQ and make it
    more accessible.
    The FAQ is an entry point to FreeBSD, for more complete questions we
    have the Handbook.
    PR:                     266111, 263571, 273313, 273313, 261765, 248351, 261816
    Reviewed by:            acm@, ashish@, cc@, emaste, fernape@, linimon@
    Differential Revision:
    Sponsored by:           Daifressh
 documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc | 3292 +++---------------------
 1 file changed, 337 insertions(+), 2955 deletions(-)

diff --git a/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc
index 29750ae97f..baae58a16c 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc
@@ -1,16 +1,16 @@
-title: Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD 12.X and 13.X
+title: Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD
   - author: The FreeBSD Documentation Project
 copyright: 1995-2023 The FreeBSD Documentation Project
-description: Frequently Asked Questions, and answers, covering all aspects of FreeBSD
-trademarks: ["freebsd", "ibm", "ieee", "adobe", "intel", "linux", "microsoft", "opengroup", "sun", "netbsd", "general"] 
+description: Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD
+trademarks: ["freebsd", "ieee", "linux", "microsoft", "openbsd", "netbsd", "general"] 
 bookOrder: 5
 tags: ["FAQ", "FreeBSD FAQ"]
 layout: single
-= Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD {rel2-relx} and {rel-relx}
+= Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD
 :doctype: book
 :toc: macro
 :toclevels: 1
@@ -21,18 +21,6 @@ layout: single
 :source-highlighter: rouge
 :images-path: books/faq/
-:rel-numbranch: 3
-:rel-head: 14-CURRENT
-:rel-head-relx: 14.X
-:rel-head-releng: main
-:rel-relx: 13.X
-:rel-stable: 13-STABLE
-:rel-releng: stable/13
-:rel-relengdate: January 2021
-:rel2-relx: 12.X
-:rel2-stable: 12-STABLE
-:rel2-releng: stable/12
-:rel2-relengdate: December 2018
@@ -56,11 +44,8 @@ endif::[]
-This is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for FreeBSD versions {rel-relx} and {rel2-relx}.
-Every effort has been made to make this FAQ as informative as possible; if you have any suggestions as to how it may be improved, send them to the {freebsd-doc}.
-The latest version of this document is always available from the extref:{faq}[FreeBSD website].
-It may also be downloaded as one large link:.[HTML] file with HTTP or as a variety of other formats from the[FreeBSD FTP server].
+This is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for FreeBSD.
+Every effort has been made to make this FAQ as informative as possible.
@@ -69,3117 +54,514 @@ toc::[]
 == Introduction
-=== What is FreeBSD?
-FreeBSD is a modern operating system for desktops, laptops, servers, and embedded systems with support for a large number of[platforms].
-It is based on U.C. Berkeley's "4.4BSD-Lite" release, with some "4.4BSD-Lite2" enhancements.
-It is also based indirectly on William Jolitz's port of U.C. Berkeley's "Net/2" to the i386(TM), known as "386BSD", though very little of the 386BSD code remains.
-FreeBSD is used by companies, Internet Service Providers, researchers, computer professionals, students and home users all over the world in their work, education and recreation.
-For more detailed information on FreeBSD, refer to the extref:{handbook}[FreeBSD Handbook].
-=== What is the goal of the FreeBSD Project?
-The goal of the FreeBSD Project is to provide a stable and fast general purpose operating system that may be used for any purpose without strings attached.
-=== Does the FreeBSD license have any restrictions?
-Those restrictions do not control how the code is used, but how to treat the FreeBSD Project itself.
-The license itself is available at[license] and can be summarized like this:
-* Do not claim that you wrote this.
-* Do not sue us if it breaks.
-* Do not remove or modify the license.
-Many of us have a significant investment in the project and would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and then, but we definitely do not insist on it.
-We believe that our first and foremost "mission" is to provide code to any and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so that the code gets the widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit.
-This, we believe, is one of the most fundamental goals of Free Software and one that we enthusiastically support.
-Code in our source tree which falls under the[GNU General Public License (GPL)] or[GNU Library General Public License (LGPL)] comes with slightly more strings attached, though at least on the side of enforced access rather than the usual opposite.
-Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL software, we do, however, endeavor to replace such software with submissions under the more relaxed[FreeBSD license] whenever possible.
-=== Can FreeBSD replace my current operating system?
+Welcome to the world of FreeBSD!
+In this section, we provide a comprehensive overview of what FreeBSD is, its origins, goals, use cases, and the community behind it.
-For most people, yes.
-But this question is not quite that cut-and-dried.
+Discover the reasons behind its name, learn how to contribute to this project, and explore the rich ecosystem of FreeBSD within the context of open-source operating systems.
-Most people do not actually use an operating system.
-They use applications.
-The applications are what really use the operating system.
-FreeBSD is designed to provide a robust and full-featured environment for applications.
-It supports a wide variety of web browsers, office suites, email readers, graphics programs, programming environments, network servers, and much more.
-Most of these applications can be managed through the[Ports Collection].
+=== What is FreeBSD?
-If an application is only available on one operating system, that operating system cannot just be replaced.
-Chances are, there is a very similar application on FreeBSD, however.
-As a solid office or Internet server or a reliable workstation, FreeBSD will almost certainly do everything you need.
-Many computer users across the world, including both novices and experienced UNIX(R) administrators, use FreeBSD as their only desktop operating system.
+FreeBSD is a versatile and open-source UNIX(R)-like operating system known for its exceptional stability, security, and performance.
+Developed by a dedicated community of volunteers, it's based on the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX operating system.
-Users migrating to FreeBSD from another UNIX(R)-like environment will find FreeBSD to be similar.
-Windows(R) and Mac OS(R) users may be interested in instead using[GhostBSD],[MidnightBSD] or[NomadBSD] three FreeBSD-based desktop distributions.
-Non-UNIX(R) users should expect to invest some additional time learning the UNIX(R) way of doing things.
-This FAQ and the extref:{handbook}[FreeBSD Handbook] are excellent places to start.
+FreeBSD offers a powerful and customizable environment suitable for a wide range of applications, from servers and embedded systems to desktops and networking equipment.
+Its commitment to open source principles ensures a transparent and collaborative development process, making FreeBSD a trusted choice for those seeking a reliable and highly adaptable operating system.
 === Why is it called FreeBSD?
-* It may be used free of charge, even by commercial users.
-* Full source for the operating system is freely available, and the minimum possible restrictions have been placed upon its use, distribution and incorporation into other work (commercial or non-commercial).
-* Anyone who has an improvement or bug fix is free to submit their code and have it added to the source tree (subject to one or two obvious provisions).
+The name "FreeBSD" stems from its roots in the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX operating system, renowned for its contributions to the world of open-source software.
+The "Free" in FreeBSD signifies its commitment to the principles of free and open-source software, which grant users the freedom to study, modify, and distribute the code.
 It is worth pointing out that the word "free" is being used in two ways here: one meaning "at no cost" and the other meaning "do whatever you like".
-Apart from one or two things you _cannot_ do with the FreeBSD code, for example pretending you wrote it, you can really do whatever you like with it.
-=== What are the differences between FreeBSD and NetBSD, OpenBSD, and other open source BSD operating systems?
-James Howard wrote a good explanation of the history and differences between the various projects, called[The BSD Family Tree] which goes a fair way to answering this question.
-Some of the information is out of date, but the history portion in particular remains accurate.
-Most of the BSDs share patches and code, even today.
-All of the BSDs have common ancestry.
-The design goals of FreeBSD are described in <<FreeBSD-goals>>, above.
-The design goals of the other most popular BSDs may be summarized as follows:
-* OpenBSD aims for operating system security above all else.
-The OpenBSD team wrote man:ssh[1] and man:pf[4], which have both been ported to FreeBSD.
-* NetBSD aims to be easily ported to other hardware platforms.
-* DragonFly BSD is a fork of FreeBSD 4.8 that has since developed many interesting features of its own, including the HAMMER file system and support for user-mode "vkernels".
-=== What is the latest version of FreeBSD?
-At any point in the development of FreeBSD, there can be multiple parallel branches.
-{rel-relx} releases are made from the {rel-stable} branch, and {rel2-relx} releases are made from the {rel2-stable} branch.
-Up until the release of 12.0, the {rel2-relx} series was the one known as _-STABLE_.
-However, as of {rel-head-relx}, the {rel2-relx} branch will be designated for an "extended support" status and receive only fixes for major problems, such as security-related fixes.
-Releases are made <<release-freq,every few months>>.
-While many people stay more up-to-date with the FreeBSD sources (see the questions on <<current,FreeBSD-CURRENT>> and <<stable,FreeBSD-STABLE>>) than that, doing so is more of a commitment, as the sources are a moving target.
-More information on FreeBSD releases can be found on the[Release Engineering page] and in man:release[7].
-=== What is _FreeBSD-CURRENT_?
-extref:{handbook}cutting-edge/[FreeBSD-CURRENT, current] is the development version of the operating system, which will in due course become the new FreeBSD-STABLE branch.
-As such, it is really only of interest to developers working on the system and die-hard hobbyists.
-See the extref:{handbook}cutting-edge/[relevant section, current] in the extref:{handbook}[Handbook] for details on running _-CURRENT_.
-Users not familiar with FreeBSD should not use FreeBSD-CURRENT.
-This branch sometimes evolves quite quickly and due to mistakes can be un-buildable at times.
-People that use FreeBSD-CURRENT are expected to be able to analyze, debug, and report problems.
+=== What is the goal of the FreeBSD Project?
-=== What is the FreeBSD-STABLE concept?
+The FreeBSD Project has a clear and unwavering goal: to provide a high-quality, open-source UNIX-like operating system that excels in terms of performance, security, and stability.
-_FreeBSD-STABLE_ is the development branch from which major releases are made.
-Changes go into this branch at a slower pace and with the general assumption that they have first been tested in FreeBSD-CURRENT.
-However, at any given time, the sources for FreeBSD-STABLE may or may not be suitable for general use, as it may uncover bugs and corner cases that were not yet found in FreeBSD-CURRENT.
-Users who do not have the resources to perform testing should instead run the most recent release of FreeBSD.
-_FreeBSD-CURRENT_, on the other hand, has been one unbroken line since 2.0 was released.
+It aims to offer a versatile platform suitable for a wide range of computing needs, from servers and workstations to embedded systems and beyond.
+FreeBSD is developed with a strong commitment to open source principles, fostering a collaborative environment where contributions from a global community of developers help shape and refine the operating system.
+This dedication to quality, freedom, and reliability is what sets FreeBSD apart and drives its ongoing success as an open-source project.
-For more detailed information on branches see "extref:{releng}[FreeBSD Release Engineering: Creating the Release Branch, rel-branch]", the status of the branches and the upcoming release schedule can be found on the[Release Engineering Information] page.
+=== What uses cases is FreeBSD good for?
-Version {u-rel123-announce}[{rel123-current}] is the latest release from the {rel2-stable} branch; it was released on {rel123-current-date}.
-Version {u-rel131-announce}[{rel131-current}] is the latest release from the {rel-stable} branch; it was released on {rel131-current-date}.
+FreeBSD is a versatile operating system that excels in various use cases.
+It is particularly well-suited for server environments, where its stability and performance make it a popular choice for web hosting, databases, and networking applications.
+FreeBSD's robust security features also position it as a strong candidate for firewall and security appliance deployments.
+Beyond servers, FreeBSD can be tailored to function in specialized environments, including embedded systems and game console devices.
+Its adaptability, reliability, and open-source nature make FreeBSD a compelling choice for a wide range of computing needs.
-=== When are FreeBSD releases made?
+=== Who is responsible for FreeBSD?
-The {re} releases a new major version of FreeBSD about every 18 months and a new minor version about every 8 months, on average.
-Release dates are announced well in advance, so that the people working on the system know when their projects need to be finished and tested.
-A testing period precedes each release, to ensure that the addition of new features does not compromise the stability of the release.
-Many users regard this caution as one of the best things about FreeBSD, even though waiting for all the latest goodies to reach _-STABLE_ can be a little frustrating.
+FreeBSD is a community-driven open-source project with a decentralized structure.
+Its development and maintenance are carried out by a global community of dedicated volunteers, developers, and organizations who collaborate to enhance and expand the operating system.
-More information on the release engineering process (including a schedule of upcoming releases) can be found on the[release engineering] pages on the FreeBSD Web site.
+The key decisions concerning the FreeBSD project, such as the overall direction of the project or who is allowed to add code to the source tree, are made by a elected Core Team of 9 people.
-For people who need or want a little more excitement, binary snapshots are made weekly as discussed above.
+This collaborative and community-driven approach has been fundamental to FreeBSD's success and longevity as a reliable and robust UNIX-like operating system.
-=== When are FreeBSD snapshots made?
+=== How can I contribute to FreeBSD? What can I do to help?
-FreeBSD link:[snapshot] releases are made based on the current state of the _-CURRENT_ and _-STABLE_ branches.
-The goals behind each snapshot release are:
+We accept all types of contributions: documentation, code, and even art.
+See the article on extref:{contributing}[Contributing to FreeBSD] for specific advice on how to do this.
-* To test the latest version of the installation software.
-* To give people who would like to run _-CURRENT_ or _-STABLE_ but who do not have the time or bandwidth to follow it on a day-to-day basis an easy way of bootstrapping it onto their systems.
-* To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in question, just in case we break something really badly later.
-(Although Git normally prevents anything horrible like this happening.)
-* To ensure that all new features and fixes in need of testing have the greatest possible number of potential testers.
+And thanks for the thought!
-No claims are made that any _-CURRENT_ snapshot can be considered "production quality" for any purpose.
-If a stable and fully tested system is needed, stick to full releases.
+=== Does the FreeBSD license have any restrictions?
-Snapshot releases are directly available from link:[snapshot].
+FreeBSD is distributed under the[BSD License], which is known for its permissive nature.
-Official snapshots are generated on a regular basis for all actively developed branches.
+This license places very few restrictions on how you can use FreeBSD:
-=== Who is responsible for FreeBSD?
+* Do not claim that you wrote this.
+* Do not sue us if it breaks.
+* Do not remove or modify the license.
-The key decisions concerning the FreeBSD project, such as the overall direction of the project and who is allowed to add code to the source tree, are made by a link:[core team] of 9 people.
-There is a much larger team of more than 350 extref:{contributors}[committers, staff-committers] who are authorized to make changes directly to the FreeBSD source tree.
+The license means you are free to modify, distribute, and even sell FreeBSD without *being required to release your modifications as open source*.
+However, there are some minimal conditions, such as retaining the original copyright notice and disclaimers when distributing FreeBSD.
+Overall, the BSD License provides a high degree of freedom and flexibility, making FreeBSD an attractive choice for a wide range of applications and projects.
-However, most non-trivial changes are discussed in advance in the <<mailing,mailing lists>>, and there are no restrictions on who may take part in the discussion.
+Code in our source tree which falls under the[GNU General Public License (GPL)] or[GNU Library General Public License (LGPL)] comes with slightly more strings attached though, at least on the side of enforced access rather than the usual opposite.
-=== Where can I get FreeBSD?
+=== Can FreeBSD replace my current operating system?
-Every supported release of FreeBSD is available from the[FreeBSD release locator page]:
+For many users and administrators, yes.
+But this question is not quite that cut-and-dried.
-* For the latest {rel-stable} release, {rel132-current}-RELEASE, follow the link for link:[the appropriate architecture and installation mode for {rel132-current}-RELEASE].
-* For the latest {rel2-stable} release, {rel124-current}-RELEASE, follow the link for link:[the appropriate architecture and installation mode for {rel124-current}-RELEASE].
-* link:[Snapshot] releases are made monthly for the <<current,-CURRENT>> and <<stable,-STABLE>> branches, these being of service purely to bleeding-edge testers and developers.
+FreeBSD is a powerful and versatile operating system that can replace or coexist with many other operating systems, depending on users and administrators specific needs.
+However, whether FreeBSD can replace your current operating system depends on factors such as your hardware, software requirements, and familiarity with FreeBSD.
-Information about obtaining FreeBSD on CD, DVD, and other media can be found in extref:{handbook}mirrors/[the Handbook, mirrors].
+While it offers a robust and feature-rich alternative, it's essential to evaluate your specific use case and compatibility requirements before making the switch.
-=== How do I access the Problem Report database?
+If an application is only available on one operating system, that operating system cannot just be replaced.
-The Problem Report database of all user change requests may be queried by using our web-based PR[query] interface.
+Users migrating to FreeBSD from another UNIX-like environment will find FreeBSD to be similar.
+Non-UNIX users, like Windows(R) users, should expect to invest some additional time learning the UNIX way of doing things.
-The link:[web-based problem report submission interface] can be used to submit problem reports through a web browser.
+=== Can FreeBSD run popular open source software?
-Before submitting a problem report, read extref:{problem-reports}[Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports], an article on how to write good problem reports.
+Yes, FreeBSD is well-suited for running popular open source software.
+Its compatibility with a wide range of applications and libraries makes it a favorable choice for those looking to deploy and use open source software packages.
+FreeBSD provides a robust and stable environment that supports various programming languages, databases, web servers, and other software commonly used in the open source community.
+Its ports and packages system simplifies the installation and management of such software, ensuring that users can easily access and run their favorite open source tools and applications on FreeBSD with minimal hassle.
-== Documentation and Support
+=== How can I install software in FreeBSD?
-=== What good books are there about FreeBSD?
+FreeBSD offers multiple methods for software installation.
+One of the most common methods involves using the built-in man:pkg[8] package manager, which simplifies the process by fetching and installing pre-built binary packages.
+Another approach is to compile and install software from source code using the man:ports[7] collection, providing a flexible and customizable way to install software.
-The project produces a wide range of documentation, available online from this link:[].
+FreeBSD's documentation offer detailed guidance on both methods, ensuring that users can easily expand their system's capabilities with the software they need.
-=== Is the documentation available in other formats, such as PDF?
+=== What are the differences between FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and other open source BSD operating systems?
-link:[The documentation is also available in several formats] on the FreeBSD download site.
+FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and DragonFly BSD are all part of the open source BSD family, sharing common UNIX-like foundations, but each has its own distinct focus and priorities.
+These differences reflect the unique goals of each project, and while they share similarities, their specific strengths and emphases cater to different use cases and preferences within the BSD ecosystem.
-Documentation directories are categorized according to:
+=== Is FreeBSD a Linux(R) distribution?
-* The document's name, such as `faq`, or `handbook`.
-* The document's language, based on the locale names found under [.filename]#/usr/share/locale# on a FreeBSD system, with the encodings removed as all documentation now uses UTF-8.
-The current languages are:
-[cols="1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
-| Name
-| Meaning
+No, FreeBSD is *not* a Linux distribution.
+While both FreeBSD and Linux are UNIX-like operating systems and share many similarities, they have distinct kernels.
+Linux uses the Linux kernel, whereas FreeBSD uses the FreeBSD kernel, which is based on the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX operating system.
-|Bengali or Bangla (Bangladesh)
+FreeBSD and Linux each have their own unique development communities, release cycles, and system architectures, making them separate and independent operating systems.
+FreeBSD provides its own set of advantages, including a different licensing model, system design, and userland utilities compared to Linux distributions.
+=== Is it possible to run Linux programs on FreeBSD?
+Yes, FreeBSD provides a compatibility layer known as _linuxulator_ (man:linux[4]), allowing many Linux programs to function on FreeBSD.
+This feature facilitates the execution of a broad spectrum of Linux binaries without the necessity of a dedicated Linux environment.
+Nevertheless, it's important to note that numerous widely used open-source software *have native FreeBSD versions available* through the ports and packages system.
+== Installing FreeBSD
+The process of installing FreeBSD is the initial step toward harnessing the power of this robust open-source operating system.
+This section provides essential information on where to obtain FreeBSD, detailed installation instructions, and insights into concepts like FreeBSD-CURRENT and FreeBSD-STABLE.
+It also delves into the release and snapshot schedules, post-installation configuration tools, package search methods, and addresses common questions regarding package updates.
+=== Where can I get FreeBSD?
+FreeBSD is freely available for download from the link:[official FreeBSD website].
+Additionally, FreeBSD may also be available through various mirror sites, ensuring accessibility to users worldwide.
+The link:[official website] is the primary and most reliable source for obtaining the latest FreeBSD releases and updates, making it the ideal starting point for a FreeBSD journey.
+=== Where are the instructions for installing FreeBSD?
+Installation instructions can be found at the extref:{handbook}bsdinstall/[Installing FreeBSD Chapter of the Handbook].
+=== What is the FreeBSD-CURRENT concept?
-|Portuguese (Brazil)
+FreeBSD-CURRENT represents the development branch of the FreeBSD operating system.
+It is the most cutting-edge version of FreeBSD, where active development takes place.
+While it incorporates the latest features, improvements, and experimental changes, it may not always be as stable as the FreeBSD-STABLE or release versions.
+FreeBSD-CURRENT serves as a platform for developers and enthusiasts who want to contribute to the future of FreeBSD and stay on the leading edge of its development, even though it may occasionally undergo significant changes and *is not recommended for production systems*.
-|Simplified Chinese (China)
+=== What is the FreeBSD-STABLE concept?
-|Traditional Chinese (Taiwan)
-Some documents may not be available in all languages.
+The FreeBSD-STABLE branch is a more stable development branch compared to CURRENT.
+It contains code that is undergoing further testing and refinement before being merged into the RELEASE branch.
+STABLE is a good choice for those who want to track FreeBSD's development but prefer a more stable environment than CURRENT.
-* The document's format.
-We produce the documentation in a number of different output formats.
-Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages.
-Some formats are better suited for online reading, while others are meant to be aesthetically pleasing when printed on paper.
-Having the documentation available in any of these formats ensures that our readers will be able to read the parts they are interested in, either on their monitor, or on paper after printing the documents.
-The currently available formats are:
-[cols="1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
-| Format
-| Meaning
-|Depending on the document: one large HTML file containing the entire document or a collection of small linked HTML files, both together with images, stylesheets, and JavaScript
-|Adobe's Portable Document Format
-* The compression and packaging scheme.
-.. Where the format is `html`, the files are bundled up using man:tar[1].
-The resulting [.filename]#.tar# is then compressed using man:gzip[1].
-.. The PDF format generates one file.
-For example, [.filename]#explaining-bsd_en.pdf#, [.filename]#faq_en.pdf#, and so on.
-After choosing the format, download the files, uncompress them if necessary, then copy the appropriate documents into place.
-For example, the HTML version of the FAQ can be found in [.filename]#doc/en/books/faq/faq_en.tar.gz# To download and uncompress that file, type:
-% fetch
-% tar xvf faq_en.tar.gz
+=== When are FreeBSD releases made of?
-If the file is compressed, tar will automatically detect the appropriate format and decompress it correctly, resulting in a collection of files.
-The main one is called [.filename]#index.html#, which will contain the whole document, starting with the table of contents linking to the other parts of the document.
+The {re} releases a new major version of FreeBSD about every 18 months and a new minor version about every 8 months, on average.
+Release dates are announced well in advance, so that the people working on the system know when their projects need to be finished and tested.
+A testing period precedes each release, to ensure that the addition of new features does not compromise the stability of the release.
-=== Where do I find info on the FreeBSD mailing lists? What FreeBSD news groups are available?
+=== When are FreeBSD snapshots made?
-Refer to the extref:{handbook}eresources/[Handbook entry on mailing-lists, eresources-mail] and the extref:{handbook}eresources/[Handbook entry on newsgroups, eresources-news].
+FreeBSD snapshots are typically generated at regular intervals for all actively developed branches.
+These snapshots capture a moment in time of the FreeBSD source code and associated binary packages.
+The frequency of these snapshots may vary but is often done on a weekly or bi-weekly basis.
+These snapshots provide users with an opportunity to access the latest developments and changes in FreeBSD, helping them stay up-to-date with the project's progress.
-=== Are there FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels?
+=== Is there a tool to perform post-installation configuration tasks?
-Yes, most major IRC networks host a FreeBSD chat channel and the FreeBSD wiki holds an up to date[list of IRC channels].
+Yes. man:bsdconfig[8] provides a nice interface to configure FreeBSD post-installation.
-Each of these channels are distinct and are not connected to each other.
-Since their chat styles differ, try each to find one suited to your chat style.
+=== How can I search for software to install in FreeBSD?
-=== Are there any web based forums to discuss FreeBSD?
+Searching for software to install in FreeBSD is made easy through the man:pkg[8] package manager and the `pkg search` command.
-The official FreeBSD forums are located at[].
+Users can utilize this command to search for available packages using keywords, package names, or descriptions.
+This feature helps users quickly locate the software they need within the extensive FreeBSD ports and packages collection, simplifying the process of adding new applications and tools to their FreeBSD systems.
-=== Where can I get commercial FreeBSD training and support?
+=== Why am I not getting the latest packages in my FreeBSD system?
-[iXsystems, Inc.], parent company of the[FreeBSD Mall], provides commercial FreeBSD[support], in addition to FreeBSD development and tuning solutions.
+The availability of the latest packages in FreeBSD can be influenced by various factors, including the package repository's update frequency and the specific version of FreeBSD being used.
-BSD Certification Group, Inc. provides system administration certifications for DragonFly BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD.
-Refer to[their site] for more information.
+It should also be added that there are two branches for the FreeBSD ports.
+The most updated is called `latest` and the most stable is called `quarterly`.
+To use the latest packages it will be necessary to configure the `latest` branch.
+Information on how to configure branches can be found in the link:{handbook}ports/[Ports chapter of the Handbook].
-Any other organizations providing training and support should contact the Project to be listed here.
+== Hardware
-== Installation
+The Hardware section explores FreeBSD's compatibility with various hardware configurations.
+It covers a range of topics, including supported architectures, maximum RAM capacity, processor scalability, graphics card compatibility, Wi-Fi card support, and the inclusion of 10 Gigabit Ethernet network card support.
+Whether planning to deploy FreeBSD on servers, workstations, or specialized hardware, this section provides insights into FreeBSD's capabilities and limitations, offering information about hardware choices and configurations.
-=== Which platform should I download? I have a 64 bit capable Intel(R) CPU, but I only see amd64.
+=== What architectures does FreeBSD support?
-amd64 is the term FreeBSD uses for 64-bit compatible x86 architectures (also known as "x86-64" or "x64").
-Most modern computers should use amd64.
-Older hardware should use i386.
-When installing on a non-x86-compatible architecture, select the platform which best matches the hardware.
+FreeBSD boasts a versatile range of supported architectures, making it a flexible choice for a variety of hardware environments.
+Its compatibility extends to architectures such as `amd64`, `arm64`, `riscv` and more.
-=== Which file do I download to get FreeBSD?
+A complete list of supported architectures can be found on the link:[platforms page].
-On the[Getting FreeBSD] page, select `[iso]` next to the architecture that matches the hardware.
+=== How much RAM does FreeBSD support?
-Any of the following can be used:
+FreeBSD as an operating system generally supports as much physical memory (RAM) as the platform it is running on does.
+Keep in mind that different platforms have different limits for memory.
-[cols="1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
-| file
-| description
+For example, `amd64` platforms support up to 4TB of physical memory.
-|Contains enough to install FreeBSD and a minimal set of packages.
+=== How many processors does FreeBSD support?
-|Similar to [.filename]#disc1.iso# but with additional packages.
+FreeBSD's processor support varies across different architectures.
+On amd64 and arm64 systems, FreeBSD can efficiently harness the power of up to 1024 processors.
+For powerpc-based systems, FreeBSD supports up to 256 processors, while on risc-v systems, it can effectively utilize up to 16 processors. 
-|A bootable image sufficient for writing to a USB stick.
+=== What graphics cards does FreeBSD support?
-|A minimal image that requires network access during installation to completely install FreeBSD.
+Popular graphics vendors like Intel(R), AMD(R) or NVIDIA(R) are well-supported.
-Full instructions on this procedure and a little bit more about installation issues in general can be found in the extref:{handbook}bsdinstall[Handbook entry on installing FreeBSD].
+A list of supported graphics cards from link:[Intel] and link:[AMD] can be found in the FreeBSD Wiki.
-=== What do I do if the install image does not boot?
+=== What Wi-Fi cards does FreeBSD support?
-This can be caused by not downloading the image in _binary_ mode when using FTP.
+Discover FreeBSD's compatibility with various Wi-Fi cards, making it easy to connect your system to wireless networks.
-Some FTP clients default their transfer mode to _ascii_ and attempt to change any end-of-line characters received to match the conventions used by the client's system.
-This will almost invariably corrupt the boot image.
-Check the SHA-256 checksum of the downloaded boot image: if it is not _exactly_ that on the server, then the download process is suspect.
+The list of USB Wi-Fi devices that are known to work well on FreeBSD:
-When using a command line FTP client, type _binary_ at the FTP command prompt after getting connected to the server and before starting the download of the image.
+* RT5370 USB dongles (supports hostap mode)
+* TP-Link TL-WDN3200 (RT5592, man:if_run[4])
+* TP-Link TL-WN725N v2 (RTL8188EU, man:rtwn[4])
+* TP-Link Archer T4U (RTL8812AU, man:rtwn[4])
+* D-Link DWA-131 (RTL8192CU, man:rtwn[4])
+* D-Link DWA-171 rev A1 (RTL8821AU, man:rtwn[4])
+* ASUS USB-N10 NANO (RTL8188CUS, man:rtwn[4])
-=== Where are the instructions for installing FreeBSD?
+The list of Mini PCIe Wi-Fi devices that are known to work well on FreeBSD:
-Installation instructions can be found at extref:{handbook}bsdinstall/[Handbook entry on installing FreeBSD].
+* Realtek RTL8188CE Mini PCIe
-=== How can I make my own custom release or install disk?
+=== Does FreeBSD support 10 Gigabit Ethernet network cards?
-Customized FreeBSD installation media can be created by building a custom release.
-Follow the instructions in the extref:{releng}[Release Engineering] article.
+FreeBSD provides robust support for 10 Gigabit Ethernet network cards, making it a viable choice for high-speed networking environments.
+The FreeBSD kernel includes drivers for a wide range of 10 Gigabit Ethernet adapters from various manufacturers, ensuring seamless integration and optimal network performance.
-=== Can Windows(R) co-exist with FreeBSD? (x86-specific)
+More information can be obtained at the link:[FreeBSD Wiki].
-If Windows(R) is installed first, then yes.
-FreeBSD's boot manager will then manage to boot Windows(R) and FreeBSD.
-If Windows(R) is installed afterwards, it will overwrite the boot manager.
-If that happens, see the next section.
+== Documentation and Support
-=== Another operating system destroyed my Boot Manager. How do I get it back? (x86-specific)
+This section provides valuable resources for those seeking to deepen their knowledge of FreeBSD.
+It covers a range of topics, including recommended books for learning FreeBSD, avenues for commercial training and support, insights into understanding FreeBSD's internals, and where to find assistance within the FreeBSD community.
-This depends upon the boot manager.
-The FreeBSD boot selection menu can be reinstalled using man:boot0cfg[8].
-For example, to restore the boot menu onto the disk _ada0_:
+=== What good books are there about FreeBSD?
-# boot0cfg -B ada0
+FreeBSD enthusiasts and learners can explore a variety of informative books dedicated to the operating system.
+These books cover topics ranging from FreeBSD basics to advanced system administration and development.
-The non-interactive MBR bootloader can be installed using man:gpart[8]:
+Some notable titles include "Absolute FreeBSD: The Complete Guide To FreeBSD" by Michael W. Lucas, and the "FreeBSD Mastery series" also by Michael W. Lucas, among others.
+These resources offer valuable insights and knowledge to help users of all levels master FreeBSD and maximize its potential.
-# gpart bootcode -b /boot/mbr ada0
+Apart from the books, The FreeBSD Project produces a wide range of documentation, available online in the link:[Documentation Portal].
-For more complex situations, including GPT disks, see man:gpart[8].
+=== Where can I get commercial FreeBSD training and support?
-=== Do I need to install the source?
+For those seeking professional training and support for FreeBSD, several commercial providers offer tailored services.
+The FreeBSD project maintains a link:[list of companies] from which support can be requested.
-In general, no.
-There is nothing in the base system which requires the presence of the source to operate.
-Some ports, like package:sysutils/lsof[], will not build unless the source is installed.
-In particular, if the port builds a kernel module or directly operates on kernel structures, the source must be installed.
+=== How can I learn more about FreeBSD's internals?
-=== Do I need to build a kernel?
+To delve deeper into the inner workings of FreeBSD, interested individuals can explore resources like "The Design And Implementation Of The FreeBSD Operating System".
+The extref:{arch-handbook}[FreeBSD Architecture Handbook]. is another valuable resource that provides detailed information about FreeBSD's architecture, system organization, and design principles
-Usually not.
-The supplied `GENERIC` kernel contains the drivers an ordinary computer will need.
-man:freebsd-update[8], the FreeBSD binary upgrade tool, cannot upgrade custom kernels, another reason to stick with the `GENERIC` kernel when possible.
-For computers with very limited RAM, such as embedded systems, it may be worthwhile to build a smaller custom kernel containing just the required drivers.
+Additionally, reviewing the FreeBSD source code, available through the FreeBSD source repository, provides valuable insights into the operating system's core components.
-=== Should I use DES, Blowfish, or MD5 passwords and how do I specify which form my users receive?
+=== How can I get help in a FreeBSD system?
-FreeBSD uses _SHA512_ by default.
-DES passwords are still available for backwards compatibility with operating systems that still use the less secure password format.
-FreeBSD also supports the Blowfish and MD5 password formats.
-Which password format to use for new passwords is controlled by the `passwd_format` login capability in [.filename]#/etc/login.conf#, which takes values of `des`, `blf` (if these are available) or `md5`.
-See the man:login.conf[5] manual page for more information about login capabilities.
+Getting assistance within a FreeBSD system is straightforward.
+FreeBSD offers a wealth of built-in documentation, accessible through the man:man[1] command,
+which provides comprehensive information about various commands and system components.
-=== What are the limits for FFS file systems?
+Additionally, the extref:{handbook}[FreeBSD Handbook], available both online and locally on the system, serves as a valuable resource for in-depth guidance.
-For FFS file systems, the largest file system is practically limited by the amount of memory required to man:fsck[8] the file system.
-man:fsck[8] requires one bit per fragment, which with the default fragment size of 4 KB equates to 32 MB of memory per TB of disk.
-This does mean that on architectures which limit userland processes to 2 GB (e.g., i386(TM)), the maximum man:fsck[8]'able filesystem is ~60 TB.
+If specific issues arise, seeking help from the FreeBSD community via mailing lists, forums, or IRC can provide timely solutions and insights from experienced FreeBSD users and developers.
-If there was not a man:fsck[8] memory limit the maximum filesystem size would be 2 ^ 64 (blocks) * 32 KB => 16 Exa * 32 KB => 512 ZettaBytes.
+== Community Questions
-The maximum size of a single FFS file is approximately 2 PB with the default block size of 32 KB.
-Each 32 KB block can point to 4096 blocks.
-With triple indirect blocks, the calculation is 32 KB * 12 + 32 KB * 4096 + 32 KB * 4096^2 + 32 KB * 4096^3.
-Increasing the block size to 64 KB will increase the max file size by a factor of 16.
+Explore this section to discover ways to engage with the FreeBSD community.
-=== Why do I get an error message, readin failed after compiling and booting a new kernel?
+Learn about FreeBSD IRC channels for real-time discussions, web-based forums for sharing insights,
+and access to FreeBSD mailing lists and news groups for in-depth discussions and news updates.
-The world and kernel are out of sync.
-This is not supported.
-Be sure to use `make buildworld` and `make buildkernel` to update the kernel.
+=== Are there FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels?
-Boot the system by specifying the kernel directly at the second stage, pressing any key when the `|` shows up before loader is started.
+Yes, most major IRC networks host a FreeBSD chat channel and the FreeBSD wiki holds an up to date link:[list of IRC channels].
-=== Is there a tool to perform post-installation configuration tasks?
+Each of these channels are distinct and are not connected to each other.
+Since their chat styles differ, try each to find one suited to your chat style.
-bsdconfig provides a nice interface to configure FreeBSD post-installation.
+=== Are there any web based forums to discuss FreeBSD?
-== Hardware Compatibility
+The official FreeBSD forums are located at the link:[FreeBSD Forums homepage].
-=== General
+=== Where do I find info on the FreeBSD mailing lists?
-==== I want to get a piece of hardware for my FreeBSD system. Which model/brand/type is best?
+The public mailing lists can be found at the link:[FreeBSD mailing lists].
-This is discussed continually on the FreeBSD mailing lists but is to be expected since hardware changes so quickly.
-Read through the Hardware Notes for FreeBSD link:{u-rel123-hardware}[{rel123-current}] or link:{u-rel131-hardware}[{rel131-current}] and search the[mailing list archives] before asking about the latest and greatest hardware.
-Chances are a discussion about that type of hardware took place just last week.
+== Miscellaneous Questions
-Before purchasing a laptop, check the archives for {freebsd-questions}, or possibly a specific mailing list for a particular hardware type.
+Explore a variety of intriguing and practical queries about FreeBSD, covering topics from shell choices to system quirks and even the FreeBSD pet's name.
-==== What are the limits for memory?
+=== Why is /bin/sh so minimal? Why does FreeBSD not use bash or another shell?
-FreeBSD as an operating system generally supports as much physical memory (RAM) as the platform it is running on does.
-Keep in mind that different platforms have different limits for memory; for example i386(TM) without PAE supports at most 4 GB of memory (and usually less than that because of PCI address space) and i386(TM) with PAE supports at most 64 GB memory.
-As of FreeBSD 10, AMD64 platforms support up to 4 TB of physical memory.
+Many people need to write shell scripts which will be portable across many systems.
+That is why POSIX(R) specifies the shell and utility commands in great detail.
+Most scripts are written in Bourne shell (man:sh[1]), and because several important programming interfaces are specified to use the Bourne shell to interpret commands.
+As the Bourne shell is so often and widely used, it is important for it to be quick to start, be deterministic in its behavior, and have a small memory footprint.
-==== Why does FreeBSD report less than 4 GB memory when installed on an i386(TM) machine?
+The existing implementation is our best effort at meeting as many of these requirements simultaneously as we can.
+To keep `/bin/sh` small, we have not provided many of the convenience features that other shells have.
-The total address space on i386(TM) machines is 32-bit, meaning that at most 4 GB of memory is addressable (can be accessed).
-Furthermore, some addresses in this range are reserved by hardware for different purposes, for example for using and controlling PCI devices, for accessing video memory, and so on.
-Therefore, the total amount of memory usable by the operating system for its kernel and applications is limited to significantly less than 4 GB.
-Usually, 3.2 GB to 3.7 GB is the maximum usable physical memory in this configuration.
+That is why other more featureful shells like `bash`, `scsh`, man:tcsh[1], and `zsh` are available.
-To access more than 3.2 GB to 3.7 GB of installed memory (meaning up to 4 GB but also more than 4 GB), a special tweak called PAE must be used.
-PAE stands for Physical Address Extension and is a way for 32-bit x86 CPUs to address more than 4 GB of memory.
-It remaps the memory that would otherwise be overlaid by address reservations for hardware devices above the 4 GB range and uses it as additional physical memory (see man:pae[4]).
-Using PAE has some drawbacks; this mode of memory access is a little bit slower than the normal (without PAE) mode and loadable modules (see man:kld[4]) are not supported.
-This means all drivers must be compiled into the kernel.
+=== How do I use my delete key in sh and csh?
-The most common way to enable PAE is to build a new kernel with the special ready-provided kernel configuration file called [.filename]#PAE#, which is already configured to build a safe kernel.
-Note that some entries in this kernel configuration file are too conservative and some drivers marked as unready to be used with PAE are actually usable.
-A rule of thumb is that if the driver is usable on 64-bit architectures (like AMD64), it is also usable with PAE.
-When creating a custom kernel configuration file, PAE can be enabled by adding the following line:
+For the Bourne Shell, add the following lines to [.filename]#~/.shrc#:
-options       PAE
+bind ^[[3~ ed-delete-next-char # for xterm
-PAE is not much used nowadays because most new x86 hardware also supports running in 64-bit mode, known as AMD64 or Intel(R) 64.
-It has a much larger address space and does not need such tweaks.
-FreeBSD supports AMD64 and it is recommended that this version of FreeBSD be used instead of the i386(TM) version if 4 GB or more memory is required.
-=== Architectures and Processors
-==== Does FreeBSD support architectures other than the x86?
-FreeBSD divides support into multiple tiers.
-Tier 1 architectures, such as i386 or amd64; are fully supported.
-Tiers 2 and 3 are supported on a best-effort basis.
-A full explanation of the tier system is available in the extref:{committers-guide}[Committer's Guide., archs]
-A complete list of supported architectures can be found on the[platforms page.]
-==== Does FreeBSD support Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)?
-FreeBSD supports symmetric multi-processor (SMP) on all non-embedded platforms (e.g, i386, amd64, etc.).
-SMP is also supported in arm and MIPS kernels, although some CPUs may not support this.
-FreeBSD's SMP implementation uses fine-grained locking, and performance scales nearly linearly with number of CPUs.
-man:smp[4] has more details.
-==== What is microcode? How do I install AMD or Intel CPU microcode updates?
-Microcode is a method of programmatically implementing hardware level instructions.
-This allows for CPU bugs to be fixed without replacing the on board chip.
-Install package:sysutils/cpu-microcode[], then add:
+For the C Shell, add the following lines to [.filename]#~/.cshrc#:
+bindkey ^[[3~ delete-char # for xterm
-to [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf#
-=== Peripherals
-==== What kind of peripherals does FreeBSD support?
-See a list of hardware known to work and any applicable restrictions in the Hardware Notes for FreeBSD link:{u-rel123-hardware}[{rel123-current}] or link:{u-rel131-hardware}[{rel131-current}].
-=== Keyboards and Mice
+=== I have forgotten the root password! What do I do?
-==== Is it possible to use a mouse outside the X Window system?
+Do not panic!
+Restart the system, type `boot -s` at the `Boot:` prompt to enter single-user mode.
+At the question about the shell to use, hit kbd:[Enter] which will display a # prompt.
+Enter `mount -urw /` to remount the root file system read/write, then run `mount -a` to remount all the file systems.
+Run `passwd root` to change the `root` password then run man:exit[1] to continue booting.
-The default console driver, man:vt[4], provides the ability to use a mouse pointer in text consoles to cut & paste text.
-Run the mouse daemon, man:moused[8], and turn on the mouse pointer in the virtual console:
+If you are still prompted to give the `root` password when entering the single-user mode, it means that the console has been marked as `insecure` in [.filename]#/etc/ttys#.
+In this case, it will be required to boot from a FreeBSD installation disk, choose the [.guimenuitem]#Live CD# or [.guimenuitem]#Shell# at the beginning of the install process and issue the commands mentioned above.
+Mount the specific partition in this case and then chroot to it.
+For example, replace `mount -urw /` with `mount /dev/ada0p1 /mnt; chroot /mnt` for a system on _ada0p1_.
-# moused -p /dev/xxxx -t yyyy
-# vidcontrol -m on
+If the root partition cannot be mounted from single-user mode, it is possible that the partitions are encrypted and it is impossible to mount them without the access keys.
+For more information see the section about encrypted disks in the FreeBSD extref:{handbook}disks/[Handbook, disks-encrypting].
-Where _xxxx_ is the mouse device name and _yyyy_ is a protocol type for the mouse.
-The mouse daemon can automatically determine the protocol type of most mice, except old serial mice.
-Specify the `auto` protocol to invoke automatic detection.
-If automatic detection does not work, see the man:moused[8] manual page for a list of supported protocol types.
+=== I made a mistake in rc.conf, or another startup file, and now I cannot edit it because the file system is read-only. What should I do?
-For a PS/2 mouse, add `moused_enable="YES"` to [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf# to start the mouse daemon at boot time.
-Additionally, to use the mouse daemon on all virtual terminals instead of just the console, add `allscreens_flags="-m on"` to [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf#.
+Restart the system using `boot -s` at the loader prompt to enter single-user mode.
+When prompted for a shell pathname, press kbd:[Enter] and run `mount -urw /` to re-mount the root file system in read/write mode.
+You may also need to run `mount -a -t ufs` to mount the file system where your favorite editor is defined.
+If that editor is on a network file system, either configure the network manually before mounting the network file systems, or use an editor which resides on a local file system, such as man:ed[1].
-When the mouse daemon is running, access to the mouse must be coordinated between the mouse daemon and other programs such as X Windows.
-Refer to the FAQ <<x-and-moused,Why does my mouse not work with X?>> for more details on this issue.
+In order to use a full screen editor such as man:vi[1] or man:emacs[1], run `export TERM=xterm` so that these editors can load the correct data from the man:termcap[5] database.
-==== How do I cut and paste text with a mouse in the text console?
+After performing these steps, edit [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf# to fix the syntax error.
+The error message displayed immediately after the kernel boot messages should indicate the number of the line in the file which is at fault.
-It is not possible to remove data using the mouse.
-However, it is possible to copy and paste.
-Once the mouse daemon is running as described in the <<moused,previous question>>, hold down button 1 (left button) and move the mouse to select a region of text.
-Then, press button 2 (middle button) to paste it at the text cursor.
-Pressing button 3 (right button) will "extend" the selected region of text.
+=== How much free memory is available?
-If the mouse does not have a middle button, it is possible to emulate one or remap buttons using mouse daemon options.
-See the man:moused[8] manual page for details.
+There are a couple of kinds of "free memory".
+The most common is the amount of memory immediately available without reclaiming memory already in use.
+That is the size of the free pages queue plus some other reserved pages.
+This amount is exported by the `vm.stats.vm.v_free_count` man:sysctl[8], shown, for instance, by man:top[1].
+Another kind of "free memory" is the total amount of virtual memory available to userland processes, which depends on the sum of swap space and usable memory.
+Other kinds of "free memory" descriptions are also possible, but it is relatively useless to define these, but rather it is important to make sure that the paging rate is kept low, and to avoid running out of swap space.
-==== My mouse has a fancy wheel and buttons. Can I use them in FreeBSD?
+=== My time is wrong, how can I change the timezone?
-The answer is, unfortunately, "It depends".
-These mice with additional features require specialized driver in most cases.
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