var out of space
jerrymc at msu.edu
Mon Dec 18 09:13:43 PST 2006
> I inherited a freebsd installation with a var slice/mount that is to
> small and filling up all the time.
> What type of info should I provide to allow someone to help me with a
> I would very much prefer to not install another drive just for /var.
> /usr has plenty of space. Can I mount var off of /usr?
> Here is the output of df for starters:
> /dev/ad0s1a 128990 119970 -1298 101% /
> /dev/ad0s1f 257998 185246 52114 78% /tmp
> /dev/ad0s1g 112755734 4533434 99201842 4% /usr
> /dev/ad0s1e 257998 206956 30404 87% /var
> procfs 4 4 0 100% /proc
You are right, whoever built that machine put all the spare space
in to /usr (wouldn't be my choice, but...) so you can make use of
The first thing to do is to figure out what is using the space.
use du(1) for that.
probably something like: (NOTE: do this as root or single user)
du -sk *
The most like culprits are /var/mail, var/spool, /var/log, and /var/db
Rather than moving all of /var in to /usr, just move the worst of
those and make symlinks.
Of course you might also want to clean up some of the stuff, for example
if /var/log is taking up all the space, use newsyslog(8) to manage
rotation of logs and clearing of old logs.
But, really your /var is too small so even after you clean up you will
have to move some things.
For example, you can move /var/spool to /usr by:
tar cpf /usr/spool.tar *
tar xpf ../spool.tar
mv spool old-spool
ln -s /usr/var.spool spool
Now check things out by doing looking around: cd /var/spool should
get you to /usr/var.spool and find all the files in place. When you
are convinced it is good, then:
rm -rf old-spool
You might just find some files it refused to rm because flags are
set on them, particularly 'schg' so you will have to unset those
flags to nuke the files.
chflags noschg file_name for example
Then remove those files by hand.
At this point you would have /var/spool actually living in /usr
with no problem.
NOTE that doing the tar to a file and then untarring and also moving
/var/spool to a different file and checking things first is being a
little more careful(chicken) than absolutely necessary, but I prefer
being safe. Also, my naming convention (making the directory be
var.spool) helps me keep track of things sort of like using mnemonic
This doesn't muck with your partition layout like moving all of /var
in to /usr would.
But, if you really want to move all of /var to /usr and change the
mounts, then use dump/restore as follows:
dump 0af - /var | restore -rf -
Edit /etc/fstab to remove or comment out the /var line
ln -s /usr/newvar var
Check it out - it should work just fine.
Of course, you don't have to use the name 'newvar' for the
directory name in /usr, but it makes it clearer what happened.
Now the 260MB in the ad0s1e partition will be essentially unused
for anything unless you mount it as something else.
I really think the former solution is a little better, but either
NOTE also that a possibly better overall solution that either is to
completely reinstall FreeBSD from scratch and completely reorganize
your disk at the same time especially if it is below version 6.1.
Of course, you would want to make complete backups before doing that
so you can put what parts of your data you want to keep back on after
But, if you are new to FreeBSD, just moving a couple of things to free
up space in /var will easily give you time to play around and become
familiar and then you can do the complete re-install later when you
have a better picture of what you want and after 6.2 RELEASE comes out.
> and ls -la at / looks like this:
> -rw-r--r-- 2 root wheel 802 May 25 2004 .cshrc
> -rw-r--r-- 2 root wheel 251 May 25 2004 .profile
> -r--r--r-- 1 root wheel 6355 May 25 2004 COPYRIGHT
> drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 1024 Nov 29 17:39 bin
> drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Nov 5 15:27 boot
> drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 16 2005 cdrom
> lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 10 Jan 16 2005 compat -> usr/compat
> drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 20480 Jan 16 2005 dev
> drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 2560 Dec 1 16:11 etc
> lrwxrwxrwx 1 root wheel 9 Jan 16 2005 home -> /usr/home
> -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 4344469 Nov 5 13:22 kernel
> -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 4344469 Nov 5 13:22 kernel.GENERIC
> drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 May 25 2004 mnt
> drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 4608 Nov 5 13:22 modules
> dr-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 512 Dec 17 01:10 proc
> drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Nov 5 13:36 root
> drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 2048 Nov 5 15:27 sbin
> drwxr-xr-x 4 root wheel 1024 Jan 16 2005 stand
> lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 11 Nov 5 15:27 sys -> usr/src/sys
> drw------- 7 root wheel 2048 Dec 17 01:09 tmp
> drwxr-xr-x 18 root wheel 512 Jan 16 2005 usr
> drwxr-xr-x 21 root wheel 512 Nov 6 11:54 var
That doesn't affect anything. It looks about normal.
The only problem is that you need more space in root or something
cleaned out. Do a du -sk * in root to see what is hogging
all the space. Also, you might want to use the -F flag on ls
as in ls -laF so it marks the directories for you. Makes it easier
to see what is going on.
> Thanks for any help,
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