My disk I/O testing methods for FreeBSD 5.3 ...
linicks at gmail.com
Thu Feb 3 14:36:39 PST 2005
I would like to share the methods that I have been using in my disk
I/O testing. The detailed results of these tests have been posted to
the performance and questions mailing lists under the title " FreeBSD
5.3 I/O Performance / Linux 2.6.10 | Continued Discussion". I
originally started this testing as due diligence in an up coming
project. As a result of this testing I discovered an elegant
operating system that I enjoy working with.
Intent Of This Testing:
1)To measure the disk I/O performance of various operating systems for
use as a production database server.
2)Help improve the disk I/O performance of FreeBSD 5.x and greater by
assisting the FreeBSD development team in identifying possible
performance issues, and provide them with data to measure the success
of various changes to the operating system.
Operating Systems tested:
Fedora Core 3 with EXT3, and XFS. I tested with and with out patches.
SUSE Enterprise Server 9 with Riser FS.
FreeBSD 5.3R, RELENG_5_3, RELENG_5
Compaq DeskPro, PIII 800, 384Mb Ram, 10Gb IDE HD.
Dell PE 2400, Dual PIII 550, 512Mb Ram, (2)10K,LVD SCSI, RAID 1, PERC
2SI controller with 64Mb ram.
Dell PE SC400, 2.4Ghz P4, 256MB Ram, 40Gb IDE HD.
Dell 4600, 2.8 Ghz P4 with HT, 512MB Ram, 80GB IDE HD.
It's my intention to test these Operating Systems using as many of
the default installation options as possible with no special tuning.
The only deviations in my previous testing were as follows: The #linux
xfs option was used when installing Fedora so that I could use XFS,
and a special test where I installed 5.3R with UFS instead of UFS2 (I
didn't see any improvement when using UFS). I installed FreeBSD using
the standard install option, and used the auto allocate features for
partitioning and slicing. I installed Fedora with the stock server
packages and created a 100Mb /boot, 512Mb swap, and allocated the
remaining space to /. I tested FreeBSD5.3R and FC3R with and without
updates. I used cvsup to update FreeBSD and yum update to update
Fedora. I didn't do any updating to FreeBSD4.11R, NetBSD2.0, and
I used the following utilities/tools in my testing:
IOSTAT (iostat -d 2)
DD Example Tests:
- #time dd bs=1024 if=/dev/zero of=tstfile count=1M
- #time dd bs=1024 if=/dev/zero of=tstfile count=2M
- #time dd bs=1024 if=/dev/zero of=tstfile count=3M
Bonnie++ Example Tests:
#bonnie++ -u root -s 1024 -r 512 -n 5
#bonnie++ -u root -s 2048 -r 512 -n 5
#bonnie++ -u root -s 3072 -r 512 -n 5
CP Example Tests:
#time cp tstfile tstfile2
SQL, PL, PSQL Example Tests:
CREATE TABLE test1 (
CREATE FUNCTION build_data() RETURNS integer AS '
i INTEGER DEFAULT 0;
FOR i IN 1..1000000 LOOP
curtime := ''now'';
INSERT INTO test1 VALUES (curtime, ''test string'', i);
' LANGUAGE 'plpgsql';
Then the following script is run under the time program to ascertain
how long it takes to run:
CREATE TABLE test2 (
CREATE TABLE test3 AS SELECT * FROM test1;
INSERT INTO test2 SELECT * FROM test1 WHERE ((anumber % 2) = 0);
DELETE FROM test3 WHERE ((anumber % 2) = 0);
DELETE FROM test3 WHERE ((anumber % 13) = 0);
CREATE TABLE test4 AS
SELECT test1.thedate AS t1date,
test2.thedate AS t2date,
test1.astring AS t1string,
test2.astring AS t2string,
test1.anumber AS t1number,
test2.anumber AS t2number
FROM test1 JOIN test2 ON test1.anumber=test2.anumber;
UPDATE test3 SET thedate='now' WHERE ((anumber % 5) = 0);
DROP TABLE test4;
CREATE TABLE test4 AS SELECT * FROM test1;
DELETE FROM test4 WHERE ((anumber % 27) = 0);
DROP TABLE test4;
DROP TABLE test3;
DROP TABLE test2;
Example FS TAB:
minime# cat /etc/fstab
# Device Mountpoint FStype Options Dump Pass#
/dev/ad0s1b none swap sw 0 0
/dev/ad0s1a / ufs rw 1 1
/dev/ad0s1e /tmp ufs rw 2 2
/dev/ad0s1f /usr ufs rw 2 2
/dev/ad0s1d /var ufs rw 2 2
/dev/acd0 /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
Verification Of Test:
I have been able to get consistent results in all of my testing.
However, I think the best verification would be to have as many people
as possible test the disk I/O performance on a range of hardware,
testing methods, and configurations.
Summary Of Results:
The results of my testing have consistently demonstrated that
FreeBSD5.3+ has dramatically slower disk I/O performance than all of
the other operating systems that were tested. FreeBSD 4.11R was the
performance leader followed by Fedora C3 with XFS. All of the BSD
distributions, with the exception of 5.3+, were able to consistently
demonstrate a throughput of 56-58Mb/s sustained throughput, while 5.3+
consistently demonstrated a throughput of 12-15Mb/s (58 -15 = 43 ?).
Please let me know if you need any additional details.
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