DocBook help

Ken Smith kensmith at cse.Buffalo.EDU
Mon Nov 17 04:35:22 UTC 2003

On Sun, Nov 16, 2003 at 01:28:39PM -0500, Joe Marcus Clarke wrote:

> Yeah, that's fine.  Thanks!

How's this?  It's viewable in a very stripped-down web version at:

if you want to see it.  Lost of the support files are missing so it
will look much better once integrated on the main web site.

<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V4.1-Based Extension//EN" [
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<!ENTITY % freebsd PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Miscellaneous FreeBSD Entities//EN">
<!ENTITY % authors PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Author Entities//EN">
<!ENTITY % teams PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//EN">
<!ENTITY % mailing-lists PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Mailing List Entities//EN">
<!ENTITY % trademarks PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Trademark Entities//EN">

    <title>Package Building Procedures</title>

      <corpauthor>The &os; Ports Management Team</corpauthor>


      <holder role="mailto:portmgr at">The &os; Ports
	Management Team</holder>

    <legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">

  <sect1 id="intro">
    <title>Introduction and Conventions</title>

    <para>In order to provide pre-compiled binaries of third-party
      applications for &os;, the ports collection is regularly
      built on one of the <quote>Package Building Clusters.</quote>
      Currently, there are two such clusters:
      <hostid role="fqdn"></hostid> and
      <hostid role="fqdn"></hostid>.</para>

    <para>Most of the package building magic occurs under the
      <filename>/var/portbuild</filename> directory.  Unless
      otherwise specified, all paths will be relative to
      this location.  <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> will
      be used to specify one of the package architectures
      (&i386;, alpha, &sparc64;, ia64, and amd64), and
      <replaceable>${branch}</replaceable> will be used
      to specify the build branch (4, 5, 4-exp).

  <sect1 id="management">
    <title>Build Client Management</title>

    <para>The &i386; and alpha clients currently netboot
      from <hostid>bento</hostid>; the others are self-hosted.
      In all cases they set themselves up at boot-time to prepare
      to build packages.</para>

      user can &man.ssh.1; as <username>root</username> onto
      each of the <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> nodes.</para>

    <para>The <command>scripts/allgohans</command> script can
      be used to run a command on all of the
      <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> clients
      [<literal>XXX</literal> Currently slightly broken - it
      suspends itself after dispatching the command to each

    <para>The <command>scripts/checkmachines</command> script
      is used to monitor the load on all the nodes of the
      build cluster, and schedule which nodes build which ports.
      This script is not very robust, and has a tendency to die.
      It is best to start up this script on the build master
      (either <hostid>bento</hostid> or <hostid>dosirak</hostid>)
      after boot time using a &man.while.1; loop.

  <sect1 id="setup">
    <title>Chroot Build Environment Setup</title>

    <para>Package builds are performed in a
      <literal>chroot</literal> populated by the
      <filename>portbuild</filename> script using the
      file.  This tarball is created by the
      <command>mkbindist</command> script which reads the
      file to decide how to create the tarball.</para>

    <para>The script should be run as <username>root</username>
      with the following command:</para>

    <screen>/var/portbuild&prompt.root; <userinput>scripts/mkbindist <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> <replaceable>${branch}</replaceable></userinput></screen>

    <para>If <literal>ftp=1</literal> in
      <filename>mkbindist.conf</filename> then a prebuilt release
      will be downloaded via FTP from the location specified by
      If <literal>ftp=0</literal> and
      <literal>buildworld=1</literal> then
      <command>mkbindist</command> will call
      <command>makeworld</command> to build a new world
      [<literal>XXX</literal> This is currently broken].</para>

    <para>If both <literal>ftp=0</literal> and
      <literal>buildworld=0</literal> then
      <command>mkbindist</command> will use the pre-existing
      contents of <replaceable>${worlddir}</replaceable> to
      create <filename>bindist.tar</filename>.  In practice
      this means that you must have already installed a world
      in ${worlddir}, which is typically installed with the
      <command>makeworld</command> script:</para>

    <screen>/var/portbuild&prompt.root; <userinput>scripts/makeworld <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> <replaceable>${branch}</replaceable> [-nocvs]</userinput></screen>

    <para>This command builds a world from the
      tree and installs it into
      <replaceable>${worlddir}</replaceable>.  The tree will
      be updated first unless <literal>-nocvs</literal> is

    <para>The <filename>bindist.tar</filename> file is extracted
      onto each client at client boot time, and at the start of
      each pass of the <command>dopackages</command>

  <sect1 id="starting">
    <title>Starting the Build</title>

    <para>The <filename>scripts/dopackages*</filename> scripts
      are used to perform the builds.  Most useful are:</para>

	<para><command>dopackages.steve3</command> - Perform a
	  5.x build

	<para><command>dopackages.steve4</command> - Perform a
	  4.x build

	<para><command>dopackages.steve4-exp</command> - Perform
	  a 4.x build with experimental patches
	  (4-exp branch)

    <para>These are wrappers around <command>dopackages</command>,
      and take a number of arguments.  For example:</para>

    <screen><command>dopackages.steve3 <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> <literal>[-options]</literal></command></screen>

    <para><literal>[-options]</literal> may be zero or more of the

	<para><literal>-nofinish</literal> - Do not perform
	  post-processing once the build is complete.  Useful
	  if you expect that the build will need to be restarted
	  once it finishes.  This option should always be used
	  for normal build operations.

	<para><literal>-finish</literal> - Perform
	  post-processing only.

	<para><literal>-restart</literal> - Restart an interrupted
	  (or non-<literal>finish</literal>ed) build from the
	  beginning.  Ports that failed on the previous build will
	  be rebuilt.

	<para><literal>-continue</literal> - Restart an interrupted
	  (or non-<literal>finish</literal>ed) build.  Will not
	  rebuild ports that failed on the previous build.

	<para><literal>-cdrom</literal> - This package build is
	  intended to end up on a CD-ROM, so
	  <literal>NO_CDROM</literal> packages and distfiles
	  should be deleted in post-processing.

	<para><literal>-nobuild</literal> - Perform all
	  the preprocessing steps, but do not actually do
	  the package build.

	<para><literal>-noindex</literal> - Do not rebuild
	  <filename>INDEX</filename> during preprocessing.

	<para><literal>-noduds</literal> - Do not rebuild the
	  <filename>duds</filename> file (ports that are never
	  built, e.g.  those marked <literal>IGNORE</literal>,
	  <literal>NO_PACKAGE</literal>, etc.) during

	<para><literal>-nocvs</literal> - Do not
	  <command>cvs update</command> the
	  <literal>src</literal> tree during preprocessing.

	<para><literal>-noportscvs</literal> - Do not
	  <command>cvs update</command> the
	  <literal>ports</literal> tree during preprocessing.

	<para><literal>-norestr</literal> - Do not attempt to build
	  <literal>RESTRICTED</literal> ports.

	<para><literal>-plistcheck</literal> - Make it fatal for
	  ports to leave behind files after deinstallation.

	<para><literal>-distfiles</literal> - Collect distfiles
	  that pass <command>make checksum</command> for later
	  uploading to <hostid>ftp-master</hostid>.  Use this
	  sparingly because it takes up a lot of disk space.
	  You should remove the distfiles once they have been
	  transfered to <hostid>ftp-master</hostid>.

	<para><literal>-fetch-original</literal> - Fetch the
	  distfile from the original <literal>MASTER_SITES</literal>
	  rather than <hostid>ftp-master</hostid>.

    <para>Make sure the <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> build
      is run as the ports-<replaceable>${arch}</replaceable> user
      or it will complain loudly.</para>

    <note><para>The actual package build itself occurs in two
      identical phases.  The reason for this is that sometimes
      transient NFS failures may halt the build.  Doing things
      in two phases is a workaround for these types of

    <para>Be careful that <filename>ports/Makefile</filename>
      does not specify any empty subdirectories.  This is especially
      important if you are doing a 4-exp build.  If the build
      process encounters an empty subdirectory, both package build
      phases will stop short, and an error similar to the following
      will be written to

    <screen><literal>don't know how to make dns-all(continuing)</literal></screen>

    <para>To correct this problem, simply comment out or remove
      the <literal>SUBDIR</literal> entries that point to empty
      subdirectories.  After doing this, you can restart the build
      by running the proper <command>dopackages</command> command
      with the <literal>-restart</literal> option.

  <sect1 id="anatomy">
    <title>Anatomy of a Build</title>

    <para>A full build without any <literal>-no</literal>
      options performs the following operations in the
      specified order:</para>

	<para>A CVS checkout of the current <literal>ports</literal>
	  tree [*]

	<para>A CVS checkout of the running branch's
	  <literal>doc</literal> tree [*]

	<para>A CVS checkout of the running branch's
	  <literal>src</literal> tree [*]

	<para>Checks which ports do not have a
	  <literal>SUBDIR</literal> entry in their respective
	  category's <filename>Makefile</filename> [*]

	<para>Creates the <filename>duds</filename> file, which
	  is a list of ports not to build [*] [+]

	<para>Generates a fresh <filename>INDEX</filename>
	  file [*] [+]

	<para>Sets up the nodes that will be used in the
	  build [*] [+]

	<para>Builds a list of restricted ports [*] [+]</para>

	<para>Builds packages (phase 1) [++]</para>

	<para>Performs another node setup [+]</para>

	<para>Builds packages (phase 2) [++]</para>

    <para>[*] Status of these steps can be found in
      as well as on stderr of the tty running the
      <command>dopackages</command> command.</para>

    <para>[+] If any of these steps fail, the build will stop
      cold in its tracks.</para>

    <para>[++] Status of these steps can be found in
      where <filename>make.0</filename> is the log file used by
      phase 1 of the package build and <filename>make.1</filename>
      is the log file used by phase 2.  Individual ports will write
      their build logs to
      and their error logs to

  <sect1 id="interrupting">
    <title>Interrupting a Build</title>

    <para>Sending a <literal>HUP</literal> signal to the
      <command>dopackages*</command> shell processes or to any
      <command>make</command> process invoked by those scripts
      is usually sufficient to interrupt the build.  The
      package builds dispatched by <command>make</command> to
      the client machines will clean themselves up after a
      few minutes (check with <command>ps x</command> until they
      all go away).</para>

    <para>Remove the
      file before trying to restart the build.

  <sect1 id="monitoring">
    <title>Monitoring the Build</title>

      command counts the number of packages currently built.</para>

    <para>Running <command>cat /var/portbuild/*/loads/*</command>
      shows the client loads and number of concurrent builds in

    <para>Running <command>tail -f <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable>/<replaceable>${branch}</replaceable>/build.log</command>
      shows the overall build progress.</para>

    <para>If a build is failing, and it is immediately obvious
      from the port build log as to why, you can preserve the
      <literal>WRKDIR</literal> for further analysis.  To do this,
      touch a file called <filename>.keep</filename> in the port's
      directory.  The next time the cluster tries to build this port,
      it will tar, compress, and copy the <literal>WRKDIR</literal>

    <para>Keep an eye on &man.df.1; output.  If the
      <filename>/var/portbuild</filename> file system becomes full
      then <trademark>Bad Things</trademark> happen.

  <sect1 id="release">
    <title>Release Builds</title>

    <para>When building packages for a release, it may be
      necessary to manually update the <literal>ports</literal>
      and <literal>src</literal> trees to the release tag and use
      <literal>-nocvs</literal> and

    <para>To build package sets intended for use on a CD-ROM,
      use the <literal>-cdrom</literal> option to

    <para>Assuming disk space is available on the cluster, use
      <literal>-distfiles</literal> to collect distfiles.</para>

    <note><para>You must run the initial build with
      <literal>-distfiles</literal> to collect
      all the fetched distfiles.</para></note>

    <para>After the initial build completes, restart the build
      <literal>-restart -distfiles -fetch-original</literal>
      to collect updated distfiles as well.  Then, once the
      build is post-processed, take an inventory of the list
      of files fetched:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cd <replaceable>${arch}</replaceable>/<replaceable>${branch}</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>find distfiles > <replaceable>${release}</replaceable>-distfiles</userinput></screen>

    <para>This inventory file typically lives in
      on the cluster master.</para>

    <para>This is useful to aid in periodically cleaning out
      the distfiles from <hostid>ftp-master</hostid>.  When space
      gets tight, distfiles from recent releases can be kept while
      others can be thrown away.</para>

    <para>Once the distfiles have been uploaded (see below),
      the final release package set must be created.  Just to be
      on the safe side, run the
      script by hand to make sure all the CD-ROM restricted packages
      and distfiles have been pruned.  Then, copy the
      directory to
      Once the packages are safely moved off, contact the &;
      and inform them of the release package location.</para>

    <para>Remember to coordinate with the &; about the timing
      and status of the release builds.

  <sect1 id="uploading">
    <title>Uploading Packages</title>

    <para>Once a build has completed, packages and/or distfiles
      can be transferred to <hostid>ftp-master</hostid> for
      propagation to the FTP mirror network.  If the build was
      run with <literal>-nofinish</literal>, then make sure to
      follow up with
      <command>dopackages -finish</command> to post-process the
      packages (removes <literal>RESTRICTED</literal> and
      <literal>NO_CDROM</literal> packages where appropriate,
      prunes packages not listed in <filename>INDEX</filename>,
      removes from <filename>INDEX</filename>
      references to packages not built, and generates a
      summary); and distfiles (moves them from the temporary
      <filename>distfiles/.pbtmp</filename> directory into
      <filename>distfiles/</filename> and removes
      <literal>RESTRICTED</literal> and <literal>NO_CDROM</literal>

    <para>It is usually a good idea to run the
      <command></command> and/or
      <command></command> scripts by hand after
      <command>dopackages</command> finishes just to be safe.
      Run the <command></command> script before
      uploading to <hostid>ftp-master</hostid>, then run
      <command></command> before preparing
      the final package set for a release.</para>

    <para>Packages can be copied to the staging area on
      <hostid>ftp-master</hostid> with something like the following:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /var/portbuild/<replaceable>${arch}</replaceable>/<replaceable>${branch}</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>tar cfv - packages/ | ssh portmgr at ftp-master tar xfC - w/ports/<replaceable>${arch}</replaceable>/tmp/<replaceable>${branch}</replaceable></userinput></screen>

    <para>Then log into <hostid>ftp-master</hostid>, verify that
      the package set was transferred successfully, remove the
      package set that the new package set is to replace (in
      and move the new set into place.</para>

    <note><para>Some of the directories on
      <hostid>ftp-master</hostid> are, in fact, symlinks.  Be sure
      you move the new packages directory over the
      <emphasis>real</emphasis> destination directory, and not
      one of the symlinks that points to it.</para></note>

    <para>Distfiles can be transferred via

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /var/portbuild/<replaceable>${arch}</replaceable>/<replaceable>${branch}</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>rsync -r -v -l -p -c -n distfiles/ portmgr at ftp-master:w/ports/distfiles/ | tee log</userinput></screen>

    <para><emphasis>ALWAYS</emphasis> use <literal>-n</literal>
      first with <command>rsync</command> and check the output
      to make sure it is sane.  If it looks good, re-run the
      <command>rsync</command> without the <literal>-n</literal>

						Ken Smith
- From there to here, from here to      |       kensmith at
  there, funny things are everywhere.   |
                      - Theodore Geisel |

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